Last updated date: 31-May-2023

Originally Written in English

Nose Shapes in different Races

    Nose shapes


    The human nose serves as the body's main sense of smell and as a component of the respiratory system. Through the nose, air enters the body. The brain recognizes and categorizes odors as they move through the specialized cells of the olfactory system. The nasal hairs filter out foreign particles from the air. Before entering the lungs, the air is warmed and humidified as it passes through the nasal passages.

    The shape of the nasal bones and the nasal cartilage is the main determinants of nose shapes. These bones or cartilages of the nose can be smoothed, increased, and enhanced by surgeons during a nose-reshaping procedure. The Roman nose, the snub nose, and the Greek nose are the most common shapes requested by plastic surgery applicants, even though all nose shapes have their own distinct aesthetic advantages and beauty standards should only be related to the perspective of the beholder. Similar to other body parts, no two noses are exactly the same. In order to determine which nose most closely matches an individual’s, there are shared characteristics and commonalities that can be spotted.

    The term "race" describes how people are categorized based on the traits they share that they developed while residing in a certain area. Different racial or ethnic groupings frequently exhibit various distinct physical traits. One of the facial traits, the shape of the nose, is thought to vary among different ethnicities. It adapts to a certain regional habitat and climate over time by changing and evolving from one generation to the next. Because of this, different descents have a broad variety of nose shapes. For example, considering the tiny bridges on Europeans' noses, are thought to be an adaptation to their region's chilly environment. Numerous research on the topic has found that the observed variations in nose shapes among people are not just the outcome of a genetic change but also reflect adaptations to a particular climate. According to multiple studies, temperature and absolute humidity have an impact on a nose's breadth. As a result, several characteristics of one’s nose shape are in fact influenced by climatic adaptation, yet this is a condensed description of a rather complex history. We should therefore be aware that other elements, including gender, also play a part—whether more or less so.

    This article aims to explore the differences in nose architecture between various ethnic groups.


    What are the different parts of the nose?

    Parts of the nose

     In order to fully understand the factors that influence the appearance of a physical trait, it is also significantly important to be well informed about its structure. The main parts of the human nose include:

    • Nasal Dorsum (upper part)

    The Nasal Dorsum is made up of cartilages (characterized by firm tissue, described as being softer than bones and more flexible) in the lower part and bones in the upper part. The area between the nose tip and the face is commonly referred to as a "bridge."

    • Nasal Septum (the middle part)

    It is described as a separator of the human nostrils, acting as a median wall. It is located right below the Nasal Dorsum.

    • Nasal tip

    The lowest point of the nose is where the nasal tip is located. It establishes the external center of the nose and it is made up of cartilages. It significantly affects the overall physical appearance of an individual’s nose.

    The area between the eyes is scientifically known as the radix. Specialists consider it a nasal origin, root or simply starting point of one’s nose. The nostrils are described as the entrance of the nasal cavity through which certain gases such as air can enter and exit the nose. The columella connects the nasal base to the nasal tip and it is situated in the area between the nostrils. Another term that should be acknowledged is the alae, a lateral winged part covering the nostrils that is made up of soft tissue and cartilages.

    The internal parts of the nose mostly consist of nasal bones, upper and lower lateral cartilages, as well as domes. The nasal bones are located in the region of the nasal dorsum. They give the bridge of the nose shape and projection, and they differ in size and form depending on the individual. On one hand, the upper lateral cartilages are located below the nasal bone and they make up the central portion of the nose. They are essential to the form of the nose due to their role in opening up the nostrils and allowing optimal ventilation. On the other hand, the lower cartilages (also known as alar cartilages), which are located below the ULC, shape the nasal tip. Alar cartilages connect the two lower lateral cartilages on either side of the tip while forming the apex of an individual’s nose. Additionally, the domes represent the alar cartilages’ axis or hinge.  Through the use of the dome technique, rhinoplasty has recently attracted prominence. With this method, plastic surgeons could precisely control the nasal tip's rotation angles during cosmetic surgery.

    When it comes to facial aesthetics, the nose is in the spotlight as it has a central position. Each person has a unique nose profile, which is mostly determined by the five nose angles (which vary according on phenotypical groups/race) described below.

    • Nasofrontal angle or radix angle

    The nose and forehead establish an angle with one another. The ideal nasofrontal angle, according to specialists, could range from 115 to 135 degrees. Typically, the nasofrontal angle is obtuse (from 90 degrees to 180 degrees).

    • Nasofacial angle or frontal facial angle

    It is the angle at which two lines cross. The first line runs from the Pronasale to the Nasion (a slight indentation or dent between the forehead and nose) ( described as the anterior midpoint of the nasal tip). The second line runs from the front chin point (scientifically known as the pogonion) to the nasion. The ideal nasofacial angle, according to multiple experts, can be between 30 and 40 degrees.

    • Nasolabial angle

    The nasolabial angle is formed by the junction of two lines that run between the columella (edge of the lower lip) and the edge of the upper lip. Experts may recommend nasolabial angles between 90 and 120 degrees as optimum. In general, men may benefit from acute angles (preferably between 90 and 95 degrees), whereas women may benefit from obtuse angles (ideally between 95 and 115 degrees).

    • Mento-cervical angle

    It is the location where two lines converge. One line runs from the pogonion to the Glabella (point above the radix). The second line runs from the neck point (Menton) to the chin. It often ranges from 80 to 95 degrees.

    • Nasomental angle

    It is the angle formed by the meeting of the nasal bone's line with its nasal tip and its line with the chin. A proposed range for the optimal angle is 120 to 132 degrees. The nose angle in relation to the chin is determined by the mento-cervical and naso-mental angles.

    Other nose profile “rules” include the horizontal thirds of the face and the vertical fifths of the face. In the horizontal thirds of the face method, an individual’s face is divided into 3 parts: from hairline to Glabella, from Glabella to columella and from the nasal tip to the chin. For the vertical fifths of the face, as the name suggests, the face is divided vertically into five parts that are one-eye breadth size. This rule implies that the nasal width should be equal to the middle fifth of the face.


    What are the most common types of noses across the globe?

    Types of nose

    1. Fleshy nose

    Commonly found in men, a fleshy nose is typically characterized by weak cartilage. A fleshy nose frequently has a fleshy tip that is bent downward and an alae wing that is typically open and thick, as it is known for its bulbous appearance. Some studies show that it is one of the most common type of nose, accounting for over 24% of noses of the total population. Fleshy noses can also be petite, yet they do not have a bony appearance. Many famous people have a fleshy nose, including Albert Einstein, Prince Philip and Mark Ruffalo.


    2. Turned-up nose – the popular button nose

    The turned-up nose, also known as the celestial nose or the button nose, is exactly what one would imagine it to be: a petite nose with a dent in the centre of the bridge and an outward-pointing tip. Celebrities like Emma Stone have made the turned-up nose even more popular; according to cosmetic surgeons, candidates for nose-reshaping surgery, hers is one of the most frequently requested nose forms. As in the instance of Michael Jackson's nose after plastic surgery, the corrected up-turned nose is considered to occasionally go a little too far. However, these anomalies apart, the best board-certified rhinoplasty surgeons have very much mastered the heavenly nose technique. Research shows that about 13% of people have turned-up noses. Some people believe that having an upturned nose is a sign of attractiveness, while others think it's just a personal preference.


    3. Roman nose

    The Roman nose is named as such because it resembles the noses found on the faces of numerous ancient Roman sculptures, much like the less common Greek nose. Roman noses are distinguished by their strong protrusion from the face and sloping curve. Its inflated bridge frequently features a small bend or twist. Those with a distinct, powerful profile are frequently discovered to have this European sniffer. Around 9% of people on the planet have Roman noses.


    4. Bumpy nose

    The Bumpy Nose is another one of the most typical nose shapes in the world, occurring in about 9% of the population. This nose is distinguished by its wavy contour and either a light or strong curvature in the dip. The most frequent candidates for rhinoplasty are those who have bumpy noses because, in comparison to other treatments like broadening and slimming, it's relatively easy for surgeons to smooth bumps. Although they refer to two distinct types of nose deformities, "bumpy nose" and "crooked nose" are frequently used interchangeably. The most common cause of a bumpy nose is damage to the cartilage, which manifests as a noticeable bump or lump. On the other hand, a crooked nose is typically brought on by a genetic condition or congenital malformation that alters how the nose develops. So a crooked nose might be more serious than a bumpy nose and might need surgery to fix. Both kinds of nose forms, however, can be aesthetically fixed by a qualified surgeon.


    5. Snub nose

    The snub nose, sometimes referred to as "The Mirren," is distinguished by its characteristic thin and pointed appearance and resembles the nose of actress Helen Mirren. A snub nose also has a smaller, somewhat rounder profile with a tiny upward slope at the tip, which is noticeable. In contrast to the celestial nose, it is softer and rounder in shape rather than appearing to be pointed. Only 5% of those surveyed, according to research, had a snub nose.


    6. Hawk nose

    The hawk nose is distinguished by a dramatic curve and a prominent bridge, and it derives its name from the way it mimics the bent beak of eagles and other predatory birds. The hawk nose, also known as the beak nose or the aquiline nose (the word aquiline means "eagle-like"), is a key component of face forms with powerful profiles. Around 4.9% of the population has hawk-shaped noses and some well-known celebrities with hawk noses are Adrian Brody, Daniel Radcliffe and Barbra Streisand.


    7. Greek nose

    The Greek nose, sometimes known as "the straight nose," is frequently envied by those of us with crooked noses. The name of this form of nose comes from the absolutely straight noses on centuries-old statues of Greek gods. It is distinguished by its wonderfully straight bridge, which is often free of any humps or curves. As a second-generation Greek, Jennifer Aniston is a prime example of a famous person having a Greek nose. Another person with a good example of the Greek nose is Princess Kate Middleton. The Greek nose form is only present in roughly 3% of the population.


    8. Nubian nose

    The Nubian nose, also known as the wide nose, is most frequently observed in people of African heritage and has a longer bridge and a wide base. People with Nubian noses frequently have plastic surgery, and patients frequently ask for narrowing operations, according to some plastic surgeons. To repair a wide nose, many types of nose jobs can be done. One choice is Nubian rhinoplasty, which is intended to narrow the nose and give it a more definite shape. To get the desired outcomes, this treatment is frequently combined with other methods, such as septoplasty. Incisions inside the nostrils and manipulation of the supporting bone and cartilage are common during Nubian rhinoplasty.


    9. East Asian nose

    The East Asian nose, distinguished by its narrow, flat shape and shorter tip, is one of the most typical nose types among people who are from East Asian regions, however it differs from nation to country. Some experts say that many Asian patients want a broadening of the nose to harmonize with the rest of their facial features. To make their noses more resemble the East Asian nose, many people with wider and larger nose forms desire reshaping procedures.


    10. Nixon nose

    The Nixon nose is one of the least frequent nose forms, and it is well named since it mimics the prominent feature found on the 37th president of the United States.

    The straight bridge that curls at the end with a broader tip distinguishes this prominent nose shape. In studies, fewer than 1% of the people polled had a Nixon nose.


    11. Bulbous nose

    This uncommon nose shape, which occurs in fewer than 0.5 percent of the population, is characterized by its rounded, curved tip, which frequently protrudes outward to provide a bulbous, circular silhouette at the bottom of the nose. Bill Clinton and Australian actor Leo McKern are two of the most well-known public figures with bulbous noses. The trait is frequently emphasized in caricatures and cartoons.


    12. Combo nose

    The combo nose, while not technically having its own shape, combines elements from several different nose shapes to produce a distinctive profile. A good example of a famous person who had a hawk-shaped, bumpy nose before rhinoplasty is Barbra Streisand. Combo noses serve as living proof that no two are precisely alike.


    What is the average nose size considering the total world population?

    Nose size

    For men, the average nose size is 5.5 cm long and 2.6 cm wide, whereas for women, the average nose size is 5.1 cm long and 2.2 cm wide. Although it varies widely depending on age and race, it is generally the same size for both men and women. The climate and evolution have a significant impact on it. For instance, Africans may be taller than normal and East Asians may have shorter measures than typical. Older people's noses may be wider than younger people's. Therefore, we might think about ideal nose size rather than typical nose size. The nasal angles, shape, and proportions of the nose and face also differ from person to person.

    Both the large and small noses are graceful and have advantageous characteristics. The nose form is typically influenced by a number of factors. Individuals are often determined by these criteria to get acclimated to their habitat. The most pervasive fallacy regarding big and tiny noses is that girls are designed to have small noses and guys are meant to have huge noses. Therefore, if it does, both genders may feel uncomfortable about their noses, although in actuality, gender has no bearing on the size and form of the nose. The big or small nose has important qualities and functions in addition to being used to define face beauty. Although it comes in all sizes and shapes, the nose serves the same purpose for everyone. Recent research has revealed that the size, shape, and width of the nose are mostly determined by a few genes. Perhaps the majority of ethnic groups share a common nose shape. For instance, most North Africans have Nubian noses, similar to how different ethnic groups have distinctive nose forms. The temperature and humidity of the location of origin will largely determine the size of the nostrils. In order to warm the air they breathe, people from colder climates typically have long nasal bridges and narrower nostrils. Those from hotter climates have large nostrils and a narrow nasal bridge because they do not require as much air warmth as people from colder climates do.


    How do genetics affect one’s nose shape?

    Genetics nose shape

    Today, many of us who are considering nose jobs are aware that our predecessors' noses were distinctive in shape, size, and structure. Our predecessors, who lived millions of years ago, gave rise to them. They developed the nose shapes by adjusting to their environment and climate. Scientists have now discovered that our nose shape is determined by a few specific genes. They also discovered that we are a very little step away from primitive humans. For instance, the genes GLI3, DCHS2, and RUNX2 have seen significant alteration recently, and GL13, in particular has undergone rapid evolution. Typical nose genes consist of:

    • PAX3 is related to the distance between the eyes and the nose, the prominence of the nose tip with respect to the eye, and the nose's side walls. It influences the prominence of the nasal bridge and is hypothesized to have an impact on nearby facial regions. It determines the naso-labial angle along with DCHS2.
    • PRDM16 affects the breadth of the alae as well as the length and prominence of the nose.
    • SOX9 determines how the alae and nose tip are shaped.
    • SUPT3H affects the form of the nasal bridge and the nasolabial angle.
    • GL13 and PAX1 are related to the breadth of the nostrils.
    • RUNX2 affects the nasal bridge's breadth and bone formation.
    • DCHS2 has an effect on cartilage development, it shapes the tip of the nose, and establishes the angle of the tip.


    Is the shape of an individual’s nose determined by their race or ethnicity?

    Nose determined by race

    Similar to other facial features, the form of the nose varies between and within human populations. For instance, people of West African, South Asian, and East Asian descent have much larger nasal alae (the wings of the nose) than people of European ancestry. It is also well known that population differences in the nasal index—the width/height of the skull's nasal aperture—are quite substantial. It is uncertain whether genetic drift or natural selection played a more significant role in these population disparities in nose shape.

    Before it enters the lower respiratory system, the nose warms inspired air to core body temperature and saturates it with water vapor. In fact, the nasal cavity serves as the primary respiratory tract conditioning system since breathed air reaches 90% of the necessary temperatures and humidity levels before even entering the nasopharynx. By capturing particles and pathogens and expelling them from the airways, the mucociliary apparatus is kept in good working order by this conditioning. As a result of reduced mucociliary function brought on by low respiratory tract humidity, both upper and lower respiratory tract infections are more likely to occur. A large portion of the air conditioning happens as it travels through the turbinates, which include blood vessels and goblet cells that produce mucus along their walls. Studies have demonstrated that the design of the nasal cavity and inlets affects the flow dynamics of the inspired air, which in turn affects the effectiveness of the conditioning process. It is suggested that variations in nose shape among populations may have been caused by local adaptation to climate because the nose serves as an air-conditioning device.

    The testing of this theory involves multiple difficulties. We are aware that human populations differ significantly in terms of nose shape, both in terms of the outward morphology of the nose and the underlying cranial morphology. While adaptation to local selection forces can explain this, it can also be explained by the fact that phenotypic variations between populations that are geographically separated might develop as a result of genetic drift. Therefore, one must show that the observed variance in nose shape among human populations is higher than what would be predicted under genetic drift alone in order to invoke divergent selection as an explanation. The Qst statistic, which is designed to measure the level of genetic difference underlying a quantitative trait, can be used to do this.

    A neutrally evolving trait's Qst should, in theory, match the Fst distribution of neutrally evolving loci. Therefore, trait divergence exceeds neutral expectations and can be attributed to divergent selection when Qst is significantly higher than Fst. The issue with Qst is that in order to calculate it, one must be aware of the additive genetic variations that exist both within and between populations. Only "common-garden" trials, where environmental influences on the phenotypic can be successfully controlled, may be used to reliably quantify these. Making reasonable assumptions about the heritabilities of the phenotypes in question is necessary for Qst-based inference regarding divergent selection on human phenotypes because such studies are not feasible in humans.

    Using this method, several studies have discovered that while the majority of the skull's features appear to be changing in a neutral manner, the nasal aperture's form appears to be more variable across human populations than would be predicted by genetic drift. More recently, it was also revealed that, at least between Europeans and Han Chinese populations, the external nose's form divergence goes beyond what is expected. Despite the possibility that this is the case, the majority of these studies used anticonservative heritability assumptions, which overestimate the genetic diversity underlying a trait and lead to incorrect conclusions about the relative contributions of selection and drift to phenotypic variation among populations.

    A human race is described as a group of individuals who share inherited traits that set them apart from other populations. Anthropologists and biologists currently classify all males, regardless of race, as belonging to the same species, Homo sapiens. This is another way of expressing that despite how they may appear, regardless of the color of their skin, there are not many variances between human races. All human races can interbreed because they share so many characteristics. All races share 99.99+% of the same genetic material, indicating that racial classification is mostly arbitrary and that the original 3-5 races were likely only descriptions, the topic being very subjective. Others define "race" as a social construct, while some people use the term with a biological connotation. Although race does not have a biological meaning, it obviously does have a social meaning that has been established by legal means.

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a lot of interest in categorizing human races based on the size and form of their noses. The most widely used measurement was the nasal index, which represents the nose's width and height. This index was used to categorize human noses as "leptorrhine" (narrow-nosed), "mesorrhine" (medium-nosed), or "platyrrhine" (broad-nosed). The size and form of the nose, along with other physical traits like skin tone and hair texture, were used to divide people into various races. This form of classification is still employed in the demographics component of many clinical trials.

    It is important to first investigate whether there are actually variations in the shapes that the nose may take and the ranges in different groups in order to discover whether the shape and size of the nose has any physiological and therapeutic importance. The nasal index, which contrasts the base of the nose's width with its height, is a regularly used indicator of nose size and form. The following formula is used to determine the index: width of the nose * 100 / height of the nose. A wide nose is indicated by a high index, and a narrow nose by a low index. Platyphorrhine is defined as having a nasal index over 85 and leptorrhine as below 70. Messorhine is defined as an intermediate index between 70 and 85. The leptorrhine, mesorrhine, and platyrrhine nasal types were traditionally linked with Caucasian, Asian, and African races, respectively.

    However, when more ethnic groups were investigated, it became obvious that this simple anthropometric association was incorrect. There are six broadly defined ethnic groups—African, Asian, Latin American, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North European—that are referenced in the rhinoplastic literature, according to studies. Due to the wide variety and racial mixing found within these geographic locations, it is obvious that these classifications are insufficient. For instance, people from the Mediterranean and Latin America had mesorrhine rather than leptorrhine nostrils. Baker and Krause came to the conclusion that the distinctive African nose was not typical of the African-American nasal structure. There were differences in Asian nasal dimensions among the various ethnic groups that weren't just due to platyrrhine. The nasal pro-portion differences were not just limited to race but also showed distinct gender disparities among each group. Thus, it is clear that there are actual differences in nasal shape and size. It is also possible that in the past, populations living in geographically isolated areas were limited to having a certain type of nose, but with the mixing of human populations, the nasal features no longer define a particular population or, more controversially, a distinct "race".


    How does the climate affect the appearance of an individual’s nose?

    Individual nose

    Different nasal sizes and forms have been attributed by anthropologists to the nose's evolutionary adaption to climate. Researchers determined that a platyrrhine nasal index was connected with a hot, moist climate, and a leptorrhine nasal index with a cold, dry climate after correlating the nasal index of different ethnic groups with average temperature and humidity. When the data was reexamined, there was discovered that the nose index and absolute humidity had the strongest association. When examining the links between nasal protrusion and environment, specialists discovered that drier, colder climates were related to more protruding noses.

    The size and shape of the nose can also change naturally as a result of natural selection for a good airflow nose. Scientists found a significant relationship between nasal size and oxygen utilization, coming to the conclusion that natural selection had adjusted the fleshy nose's size to accommodate the volume of air that needed to be processed. Both males and females would share this characteristic if natural selection acted to produce tall noses in a dry, cold climate. Males in the same group would be predicted to develop substantially wider noses or a longer or more extended nasal tip than females since they use relatively more oxygen when exercising.

    It is well known that there is very little scientific information about how humans evolved and how they adapted to their surroundings. For instance, a common idea claims that the exterior nasal dimensions are determined by the ratio of the epithelium surface area to the volume of inspired air. This was examined by assessing the nasal cavity's volume and surface area using computer tomography (CT) scanning on a group of patients of European and African ancestry. It has been demonstrated that while there were substantial differences in the nasal index across the groups, there were no significant differences in the epithelial area-volume ratios.


    The major divisions of human races and nose shapes depending on race

    Nose shapes depending on race

    Most anthropologists agree that there are currently 3–4 basic human races that can be further divided in as many as 30 subgroups. Some classifications recognize Caucasian races, Mongolian races and Negroid races, while others also include Australoid races. However, there is no single classification of races that is universally accepted. In a 1950 declaration, the United Nations made the decision to "delete the term 'race' completely and speak of 'ethnic groups. In this scenario, a 1998 report that was published in Scientific American claims that there are more than 5,000 different ethnic groupings in the world.


    Caucasian Races

    Caucasian races

    The term “Caucasoid” is commonly used to describe a person originating from Europe, West/South/ Central Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. One of the most popular further classifications of human races list Aryans, Hamites and Semites as being considered Caucasian races. Even though the physical appearance of the nose can differ from person to person, Caucasians are generally considered to have long and narrow noses that are high in both root and bridge.

    • Aryans- Nazi racial theories identify Aryans as having narrow and straight noses among other dominant physical characteristics such as blond hair and prominent chins. Aryans include the Nordic people: Scandinavians, Germans, English and French.
    • Hamites- In the context of a now-outdated model of categorizing humanity into various races, which was initially devised by Europeans in favor of colonialism and slavery, the term "Hamites" was once applied to some Northern and Horn of Africa people. Most of their physical features are described as being narrow, including their noses that correspond to the general Caucasian nose description above. Their faces are typically orthognathous and their skin color varies from light brown to dark brown, proving the fact that Caucasian races include multiple skin tones.
    • Semites- The term “Semite” is generally used as a name given to any individual whose native language is listed among the 77 Semitic languages. Arabic is currently the Semitic language that is most often spoken, followed by Amharic, Tigrinya, and Hebrew. The physical appearance of this subgroup of people is, of course, also linked to the general description of Caucasian people.


    Typically, Europeans have small bridges on their noses. Natives of north Europe have noses with wide bases and protruding tips, whereas those of northwest Europe have noses that point upward. In general, compared to other ethnic groups around the world, Europeans have slightly larger and longer noses. It is essential to understand that nose shapes can significantly vary even in the same race or ethnic group and from country to country. For example, in Europe, most countries are considered to have a unique nose shape that is characteristic. The aquiline nose of a French person has a pronounced bridge structure that gives the nose a slightly curved contour. The area will resemble an eagle's curled beak. Polish people differ from one another in terms of appearance due to the interaction between their genes and their environment. People of Polish ancestry exhibit a few common traits and traits in general. They often have wide, pointed noses. Italians often have a large Italian nose with a distinctive structure and a strong nasal bridge, in addition to having an intense stare, olive skin, dark eyes, and dark hair. In this scenario, one can see how the nose tip starts to droop as a person ages, making the rest of the face appear asymmetrical and disproportionally long.

    Surgeons confirm that many Caucasians dislike their nose's tip and believe that their nose is overly prominent or they have a bulge on the bridge of their nose. Plastic surgeons frequently choose to refine the nose tip, rearrange the overall presentation to make the nose appear less prominent, and smooth out the nose bridge during the medical procedure.


    Mongolian Races

    Mongolian races

    There is a wide variety of human races included in the umbrella term of “Mongolian races”, such as northern Mongolian, Chinese, Indo-Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tibetan and Malayan, as well as Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo and last but not least, American Indian. The Mongolian people are well known for specific physical characteristics including flat faces with low nasal roots and flat-lying eyelids. Their noses are typically described as  being low and broad in both bridge and root. The scientific term that describes these physical characteristics of their noses is Mesorine. Additionally, the unique shape of the nose (long and flat) helps allowing recovery of heat and moisture, as it eases adapting to cold and dry environments.  In a study conducted on Mongoloid people regarding their nose index it was proven that Mongoloid males have a significantly larger nasal height compared to Mongoloid females.

    Asians tend to have large, rounder nose tips. Asian noses are known for their enlarged nostrils and lack of protruding bridges. East Asians are distinguished by having thin noses. By surface area, their noses are the smallest. Asians from the east and the south, however, have a bigger gap between their nasal bones (wings of the nose).

    Asian nose morphology comes in many different forms.  The range of ethnic variants has been categorized into three major morphological kinds. Caucasian or Indo-European ancestry is linked to the "tall and narrow" leptorrhine nose. African origins are linked to the platyrrhine nose, which is described as "wide and flat." Additionally, the mesorrhine ("middle") nose possesses characteristics that are halfway between those of the leptorrhine and platyrrhine noses. Commonly recognized as a mesorrhine, the "typical" Asian or Latino nose has a low radix, variable anterior dorsal projection, a rounded and underprojected tip, and rounded nostrils.

    The frontal view of the Asian nose has a more triangular form, which is one of its distinguishing characteristics. It is typical to observe a nasal bridge that is shorter in height when examining an Asian nose from the side compared to a Caucasian nose. Asians have thicker skin, thinner cartilages, less dorsal projection, rounder tip and alae, and a more retrusive columella, among other anatomical characteristics.  Wider-than-average nostrils and a flared nasal base are two further characteristics of Asian noses.  Because the alar cartilage is thin and fragile, suturing the alar cartilage alone makes it challenging to project the nasal tip. Furthermore, the standard rhinoplasty procedure used on Caucasians makes it hard for the alar cartilage to support the tip. The cartilage in the nasal septum is also quite thin. As a result, it cannot be used as an autogenous cartilage structural support graft on a regular basis.


    Negroid Races

    Negroid races

    The same popular classification used above incorporates the following races into the Negroid races: African, Hottentots, Melanesians/ Papua, Australian, Dravidians, Sinhalese and Aborigine. Typically, their faces are described as Leproscopic, meaning that they are to a much lesser degree compared to Caucasians. A general description of their noses  would be low and broad in the root and bridge, while having a unique characteristic depression at the root.  Negroid and Mongoloid nose types only share one thing in common: they both tend to be flatter and less projecting than Caucasoid noses.

    There are some similar trends that do occur, even though the desired results of patients of African heritage seeking rhinoplasty cannot be generalized. These goals frequently involve improving tip definition, dorsum projection, boney and alar base narrowing, as well as dorsum definition. Although it is frequently used, the term "African-American nose" does not adequately describe the great variety of nasal forms that occur among Africans. Despite this variation, some anatomical characteristics are frequently seen in the noses of individuals of African heritage who are considering rhinoplasty surgeries. Both the bony and cartilaginous framework and the soft tissue envelope exhibit these characteristics. The interior lining, cartilaginous and bony framework, and soft tissue envelope make up the nose. When compared to a leptorrhine nose, the soft tissue envelope of the nasal tip is frequently thicker in noses of African heritage. Many patients of African origin considering rhinoplasty experience diminished tip definition as a result of this thick nasal tip skin's tendency to impair the structure of the underlying cartilage.

    A broad midnasal vault and an ill-defined dorsum are two common concerns of patients of African heritage seeking rhinoplasty, both of which are caused by an obtuse angular relationship between the nasal bones at the dorsum. If the short nasal bones, a typical trait in the NAD, are not addressed carefully during osteotomies, the midvault may collapse during rhinoplasty.

    Assessing the nose from the frontal perspective is most helpful when taking into account nasal tip characteristics including width, definition, form, and symmetry, keeping in mind that individuals of African origin have significant within-group variances. Alar base width can be anything between a width as little as the distance between the medial canthi and a width as large as the interpupillary distance. It is crucial to understand that individuals of African heritage frequently have alar bases whose width exceeds the medial limbus and goes beyond the medial canthi. The frontal view can also be used to assess nasal tip definition. As previously mentioned, a poorly defined nasal tip is frequently caused by the enlarged soft tissue envelope and the weakening of the LLCs. Bulbosity, nasal tip width, and the transition of the tip to the nasal dorsum must all be taken into account when evaluating nasal tip definition from the frontal perspective. The lateral boundaries of the tip should easily transition into the curvilinear contour of the alar lobule, and the tip's contour should be continuous with the brow-tip aesthetic, or dorsal ciliary lines. For some patients with noses of African heritage, it may not be possible to achieve traits like sharp tip-defining points, clear light reflexes, and smooth dorsal ciliary lines as observed in the leptorrhine nose. However, the rhinoplasty surgeon doing the procedure on the patient of African heritage should aim to enhance each of these features by enhancing tip definition, nasal tip width, and an aesthetically pleasing transition to the dorsum.

    The easiest way to determine nostril form and tip projection is to thoroughly inspect the nose from the lateral and basal views. In patients of African heritage, it is crucial to understand the close connection between nose morphology and tip projection. As was already established, patients of African heritage have significantly different noses within their own group, and the same is true for nostril shape. Nostril orientation can range from upright to more horizontal or inverted-looking nostrils. The protrusion of the nasal tip reduces when one's nostril shape shifts from vertical to more horizontal. Additionally, there will be a decline in the nostril-to-infratip lobule ratio. The nostril-to-infratip lobule ratio, which is typically 2:1 in African noses with more leptorrhine traits and vertically oriented nostrils, indicates a balanced and properly projecting nasal tip. The nostril-to-infratip lobule ratio declines and gets closer to 1:1 when nasal tip projection diminishes. The infratip lobule's size tends to remain fairly consistent when tipprojecting techniques are used, making it challenging to attain a 2:1 nostril-to-infratip lobule ratio in the underprojected nose, even with proper tip projection. By examining the nose from its basal view, one can also gauge alar flare and base breadth. There are many different acceptable nasal widths, and it's important to understand that surgical procedures that improve tip projection may also decrease alar flare, giving the nose the illusion of being narrower. On the other hand, tip-projecting methods have little effect on alar base width.

    By examining the nose from the side, it is possible to analyze the nasal tip rotation, nasal labial angle, tip projection, and transition from the tip to the dorsum. When compared to nasal labial angles in Caucasian or leptorrhine nostrils, nasal labial angles in people of African heritage are typically more acute. In comparison to ranges of 95 to 100 degrees and 90 to 95 degrees for Caucasian women and men, respectively, professionals indicated that the mean nasal labial angle of the Black American nose is 91 degrees in women and 84 degrees in men. The leptorrhine noses and NADs have different nasal labial angles for a variety of reasons, the most important of which is that the NAD has a less pronounced premaxilla and anterior nasal spine. African-American rhinoplasty patients usually ask for more tip rotation. The linkages between the dorsum, lobule, and columella on the lateral view are used to calculate tip rotation. Except for the potential existence of supratip and columella break points, the transition from the dorsum to the columella ought to be seamless. The columellar break point separates the most anterior segment of the columella from the infralobule, while the supratip break point is generated by the separation of the septum from the dorsal line and a slight convexity of the alar cartilages. These characteristics may be present in certain people of African heritage, but they are more common in leptorrhine nostrils.

    When doing rhinoplasty on people of African heritage, the objectives are to create a nose that looks natural, harmonious, and culturally appropriate while maintaining or enhancing function. These objectives can be accomplished by the use of surgical procedures that increase the projection of the dorsum and the tip of the nose, improve tip definition, increase the nasal labial angle, and narrow the alar and boney base.


    What about Americans? Racial and ethnic diversity abound in the United States of America

    American race

    White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and individuals of two or more races are the six races that the U.S. Census Bureau officially recognizes for statistical purposes. However, it is well known that the United States of America is a very diverse country, both ethnically and racially. As a result, there is no “American race” to be described.  White Americans make up 57.8% of the population in 2020, making them the racial and ethnic majority. Black or African Americans make up the largest racial minority, representing approximately 12.1% of the population, while Hispanic and Latino Americans make up the largest ethnic minority, making up 18.7% of the population. While the nose shape and appearance of some races making up the population in the United States were described previously, Hispanic noses present characteristics that require to be treated separately.

    Ethnic rhinoplasty is frequently imagined as a treatment used to alter a patient's nose who is Black or Asian. Rhinoplasty in Hispanic patients has not received much attention. The Hispanic population in the United States has significantly increased, and plastic surgeons noticed a growth in rhinoplasty demand from this community. There are a number of significant contrasts between this typology and the Caucasian nose, according to experts. Mestizos have a wider alar base with rounded nostrils, a thicker, more sebaceous nose, a smaller osseocartilaginous vault, a short medial crus and columella, and a weak caudal septum. These characteristics helped professionals classify Hispanic noses into three main archetypes.

    • Type I

    The typical radix height and tip of the type I archetype are described as “normal”, corresponding to the global average. Other traits in this first nasal archetype are robust nasal bones, a high dorsum, and often a dorsal hump with a noticeable, broad osseocartilaginous structure.There is a wide variety of procedures that can be used for correction. For example, By rasping the bone and shaving the cartilage with a scalpel, the dorsal reduction is carried out. Using a rasp is a smart choice because it gives one the most control over small- and medium-sized dorsal humps. Another choice is to first cut the septal cartilage and then remove the bone with an osteotome. To maintain width and prevent midvault collapse after dorsal reduction, professional surgeons rarely trim the superior edge of the cartilage but instead leave the top lateral cartilages in place. Osteotomies on the lateral and medial sides should be done if the patient has wide nasal bones. If medial or transverse osteotomies are required, it depends on how much of the hump has been removed. The nasal bones can migrate medially to narrow the nasal width thanks to lateral osteotomies that detach them from the maxilla. To avoid palpable bone ridges, this is accomplished by moving along the lateral margin of the ascending maxilla beginning at the pyriform aperture. Prior to surgery, it's critical to accurately identify whether the patient's basilar nasal lines are pyramidal or parallel because these dictate the direction of the osteomy. The nasal bones are then manually displaced medially by creating a greenstick fracture at the level of the radix. An inwardly deviated nose can also be out-fractured by performing a medial osteotomy parallel to the lateral osteotomy. When small nasal bones or a significant hump are removed during osteotomies, spreader grafts are typically utilized to prevent the open roof deformity, when is the time to deal with the big nostrils and nasal base. Specialists might undertake an alar wedge/base resection depending on how much of the alar flare is present.

    • Type II

    Archetypes of type II differ greatly from those of type I. These patients lack a pronounced dorsum and have a modest radix. Additionally, these noses frequently have a dependent tip and less nasal projection. These patients typically require dorsal augmentation to address the poor radix. A dorsal augmentation employing diced cartilage wrapped in fascia has been described by experts. Some people recommend using grafts made of single or double layers of septal cartilage. Using costochondral grafts, they can perform even larger augmentations. There are, however, many other techniques that can be used.

    Tip projection in the type II patient needs to be addressed, as increasing tip projection in these patients is difficult. The most effective way to do this is through sutures, a stabilizing strut, or septal extensions. Techniques for open tip sutures are useful for elevating the tip. If only a slight increase is required, the anterior medial crura's flare can be straightened out to raise the tip 1 to 2 mm by simply suturing the medial walls of the domes together. Columellar strut grafts can be implanted for more tip projection by making a pocket between the medial crura and the premaxilla and making a vertical incision at the base of the columella. Many experts chose the septal extension graft to provide support for the newly expanded projection of the tip because it has been discovered that the columellar strut graft can result in fullness in the columella. Grafts for the supradomal, shield, and anatomic tip may also be stitched or inserted in a pocket above the tip. Osteotomies are typically avoided in type II noses since the vault's width is frequently appropriate. The methods used for type I base reductions still hold true for other base reductions.

    • Type III

    The wide base and dorsum, shorter nasal bones, less defined tip, lower nasal length, and thicker, more sebaceous skin are all characteristics of Type III archetypes. Nasal bones in Type III Hispanic noses are short and appear flat. These patients often have a bulbous, underprojected tip, and their nasal length is shortened. They also have a large base and dorsum. These noses are commonly referred to as "mestizo" or "chata," which mean “flat” in Spanish language. In order to correct type III noses, procedures such nasal base reductions, tip grafts, columellar struts, alar and nostril sill wedge resections, and alar rim grafts are frequently needed. The dorsum-to-base mismatch causes these individuals to perceive their dorsum as being narrower.

    When the length of the bones is less than half the distance from the radix to the septal angle, short nasal bones are present. Osteotomies should be avoided in this typology because they could result in lateral wall collapse. The noses of these patients are significantly misaligned in the top and lower thirds. Typically, the lower portion of the nose is significantly wider than the narrow upper third. This archetype emphasizes nasal base reductions, which are occasionally followed by dorsal augmentation. The surgical procedures used for dorsal augmentation are identical to those used for type II.

    Because the skin of Type III noses is typically thicker, tip grafts must be used more aggressively to help define the tip. The typical combinations of tip sutures and grafts can be used in these patients when they occasionally have insufficient tip projection. In this population, the columellar strut graft is particularly helpful because the medial crura are typically weak and require structural support. The patient has to be consulted regarding how their nose looks, how it connects to the nasal architecture underneath, and what may be done to fix it. The patient's objectives must also be well understood by the surgeon. Although it may appeal to our creative senses to want to create a nose that is harmonious, the patient's goal may not be to achieve an appealing shape while preserving their ethnicity. They might want to fully change their nasal features to be more "Caucasian." Together, the surgeon and patient must have a clear grasp of their common objectives.

    The same procedure should not be performed on every patient that fits one of the corresponding archetypes, despite the fact that classification schemes are useful for organizing the surgeon's understanding of the various anatomic traits present in the Hispanic community. Given that no two noses are exactly same, there shouldn't be a "signature" nose developed for each archetype. The surgical strategy must be created to address the patient's unique concerns. This strategy should take into account nasal traits and a thorough description of nasal issues such asymmetries, tip deformities, and dorsal irregularities.

    There are several considerations that should be generally taken into account while conducting rhinoplasty in this patient population, even though operational approaches differ for the Hispanic nasal archetypes. Hispanic skin is typically thicker and more sebaceous. With greater scar formation, this kind of skin might cause postoperative edema to last longer. Additionally, because the alar cartilages in Hispanics are small and thin, the nasal tip tends to be underprojected. A spherical, ill-defined tip is produced by the interaction of thick oily nasal skin with a frail cartilaginous framework. In Hispanic rhinoplasty, the airway is typically not a problem unless a major septal deviation is present. In Hispanics, the nasal aperture and base are often bigger. They frequently resemble African American noses in terms of nostril flare. In all three of the Hispanic archetypes, nasal base reductions with nostril sill and alar base resections are frequently required.


    Rhinoplasty procedures

    Rhinoplasty procedures

    Changing the form of the nose through surgery is a procedure medically known as rhinoplasty. The purpose of rhinoplasty may be to alter the nose's appearance, enhance breathing, or both. The structure of the nose is composed primarily of cartilage at the bottom and bone at the top. Bone, cartilage, skin, or all three might be modified during rhinoplasty. It is essential to discuss the benefits of rhinoplasty with a professional surgeon. Typically, nose jobs are carried out under general anesthesia, and the procedure lasts one to two hours. Patients should avoid excessive exercise and protect the nose from impact during the recovery period, which usually lasts 1-2 weeks after a nose job. After two weeks, the majority of people may usually resume their normal activities. A person's appearance can change dramatically after getting a nose operation. They can change a person's appearance and improve breathing and confidence.

    The most popular rhinoplasty procedures are reduction rhinoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, reconstructive rhinoplasty, refinement rhinoplasty, post-traumatic rhinoplasty and revision rhinoplasty, yet many other options are available, regarding on the type of characteristic that needs to be corrected.

    Surgeons will take into account one’s other facial characteristics, the skin on the nose, and the changes they want to make while planning a rhinoplasty. They will create a unique strategy for each individual if they are a candidate for surgery. Considering the major differences among racial and ethnical groups described above, rhinoplasty procedures and the techniques surgeons use widely vary depending on multiple factors.

    For instance, due to the varied anatomical structures among different racial groups, an Asian rhinoplasty can be a difficult surgical procedure. A thorough awareness of ethnic-specific characteristics is necessary for surgeons doing rhinoplastic surgery on non-Caucasian patients. Asian aesthetic goals should be carefully crafted for each patient based on their ethnicity and culture. Asians typically have a shorter, wider, and less projecting nose than Caucasians do, necessitating augmentative and structural rhinoplasty, as opposed to Caucasians, who are more likely to benefit from reduction rhinoplasty and some type of lower lateral cartilage reduction.

    Another example is represented by African rhinoplasty, which has become more and more popular in the recent years, as the procedure is also suitable for those desiring to also preserve certain distinctive ethnic traits while undergoing cosmetic surgery or treatment of certain medical issues such as deviated septums. Without removing the patient's ethnic origin, a skillful plastic surgeon can perform considerable aesthetic changes. A successful African rhinoplasty treatment necessitates much greater accuracy and focus on detail than a standard rhinoplasty. Contrary to common belief, African people’s noses exhibit considerable variation. People with ancestors from one section of the African continent may have flatter noses and larger nostrils, while those with ancestors from another location may have noticeably more definition in the bridge and tip. Rhinoplasty surgeons will carefully inspect the patient before beginning the treatment and will advise them on the best course of action to ensure the finest possible symmetry between the nose and the rest of the face.


    Conclusion- What is important to remember?


    As rhinoplasty, a cosmetic surgery designed to modify one’s nose appearance, has become more and more popular in multiple races and ethnicities, experts have been trying to fully understand what factors influence the differences regarding their nose shapes and what these differences actually consist of. It is well known that cosmetic surgeons must treat various nose types using different methods, suitably to their unique characteristics, because no two noses are exactly the same. Major differences have been discovered among racial groups across the globe. By analyzing variations regarding climatic changes and genetic information in multiple geographical areas and their connection to nose shapes, professionals have managed to create a classification of nose types based on ethnicity and race. They have discovered many similarities among people living in the same area. Multiple studies and research were required, yet the results help many surgeons across the globe treat certain patients accordingly.    

    It is essential to remember that, regardless of ethnicity or race, all noses have their unique traits that make them beautiful in their own way and in lack of a medical condition that requires special treatment, rhinoplasty procedures should only be done as a personal preference and other people’s opinions on the topic should not influence one’s decision regarding this type of cosmetic surgery.