Three hormones that lead women: Estrogen, Testosterone and Progesterone

Last updated date: 16-Jul-2021

Acibadem Fulya Hospital

4 mins read

Hormones influencing women’s autonomous system

Hormones and autonomous nervous system are closely linked and they act in collaboration. This relation is more prominent in menstrual cycles that are experienced every month by women. However, hormonal changes are not limited to 3 -5 days of the menstrual period. Menstrual cycle cover 28 days from one menstrual period to the other. These hormonal changes in women have a wide range of effects such as migraine and effects on immune system and gastrointestinal activities. The hormones secreted between two menstrual periods -for 4 weeks- influence the entire life of women. Naturally produced hormones such as estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone in this period affect your psychological status, energy level, romantic life, being extraverted or introverted, need for a holiday, diet and body weight.


First week

Estrogen boosts your energy

This interval starts on the first day of the period and lasts for 7 days. The level of estrogen, also known as female sex hormone, starts to increase from the minimal level in this process.

What you feel?

Estrogen shows a doping effect following first several days of the period when you feel pain and tiredness. The body gets rid of the excess edema, becomes lighter and more energetic. Estrogen increases the energy level and you start to feel optimistic. You have the chance to be more successful in relations with other people in this period. Your appetite is controlled and you do not experience difficulty in following your diet. People who are on diet lose weight more easily and become very motivated in this period. As estrogen level increases, you want to get out of the house and spend time with other people; you enjoy shopping and do not want to deal with works that require mathematical activity such as arranging finances.


Second week

Testosterone boosts your self-confidence and improves your memory

Estrogen level remarkably increases in the ovulation period that starts on day 8 of the menstrual cycle and ends almost on day 14 and it reaches to the highest level. In the meantime, testosterone -male sex hormone- level also increases. Both testosterone -male sex hormone- and estrogen - female sex hormone- are produced naturally in men and the same applies to the women. Testosterone level in women’s body equals to 5% of testosterone concentration in men’s body.

What you feel?

You become more positive, talkative and self-confident in this week. Your memory is sharper. You start thinking faster. You feel romantic more frequently. Testosterone also increases your sexual appetite. Moreover, you can get pregnant more easily with the effect of ovulation within this interval. You should use contraceptive methods if you do not plan a pregnancy. If you are in a bad mood, the anxiety may aggravate you may tend to exacerbate minor problems.


Third Week

Progesterone causes tiredness and somnolence

Another period of hormonal fluctuation takes place between days 15 and 22 of the menstrual cycle in women who have menstrual bleeding at 28-day intervals. Estrogen and testosterone levels reduce in this week. Estrogen level increases at the end of the week. Most importantly, progesterone hormone is secreted and reaches the peak level at this second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone hormone is responsible for preparing the uterus and genital organs to pregnancy, if fertilization is achieved in sexual intercourse. In case of conception, progesterone level increases, but it decreases, if pregnancy fails.

What you feel?

There is risk of pregnancy through a sexual intercourse in the beginning of the third week. You may experience tiredness, somnolence, and tendency to shying away from social activities while getting the end of this period. Your body temperature increases by 0.5 degree Celsius in the mornings.


Fourth week

Do not go on a diet in this week

Concentration of estrogen and progesterone hormones decreases in the last week of the menstrual cycle. Edema, swollen breasts, headache, gas distension and indigestion are expected symptoms in this period. This week is the least favorite week of individuals who are on a diet. They generally cannot lose weight in the last week.

What you feel?

You can experience sleeplessness that can cause tiredness on the next day. Pre-Menstrual Syndrome -shortly PMS- is faced in this week. Symptoms of PMS may persist until the menstrual bleeding starts. If you have problems such as hormonal imbalance and polycystic ovary syndrome, menstrual bleeding can delay and you may suffer from these problems for a longer period of time.


It has many benefits to health from brain cells to skin health

When your ovaries and uterus are surgically removed or you enter the menopause; you do not experience this cycle that is organized through a harmony of progesterone and testosterone. Although some women say “I entered the menopause, I’m free now”, the female sex hormones have many positive effects on health like making the bones stay strong, conserving the elasticity of skin, preserving vitality of hair, keeping female genital organs sufficiently moist and lubricant, conserving brain cells from Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Moreover, estrogen hormone increases the blood supply to brain, prevents inflammation, conserves nerve cells of brain and has nutritional effects. The postmenopausal reduction in estrogen may lead to memory impairment, emotional instability, hot flashes and many other problems.


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