Plastic Surgery

Last updated date: 21-Aug-2023

Originally Written in English

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An excellent facial or physical appearance often translates to increased self-confidence, self-esteem, and general comfort. However, people who are not satisfied with their appearance may find it difficult to associate well with other people. They also lack the courage to engage in certain significant physical activities.

Luckily, plastic surgery can help with this. Various research studies have shown that plastic surgery is a good treatment option, especially for people with physical issues. Sometimes, doctors recommend this procedure to treat certain defects. 


What is Plastic Surgery?

What is Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that involves alteration and improvement of physical appearance. It also includes rebuilding facial and body tissue defects that result from sickness, congenital disorders, and trauma.  

Plastic surgery is concerned with the repair, restoration, or replacement of physical abnormalities of form or function that affect the skin, musculoskeletal system, cranial and craniofacial structures, hand, limbs, breast and trunk, and external genitalia. It applies aesthetic surgical concepts not just to enhance undesired characteristics of natural structures, but also to all reconstruction treatments.

It is vital to have specialized knowledge and skills in the design and surgery of grafts, flaps, free tissue transfer, and replantation. Competence in sophisticated wound treatment, implanted material utilization, and tumor surgery is necessary. Plastic surgery has played a significant role in the development of novel methods such as microvascular and cranio-maxillofacial surgery, liposuction, and tissue transfer. This specialty is built on a foundation of surgical anatomy, physiology, pathology, and other basic sciences.

Plastic surgery competency necessitates a unique blend of fundamental knowledge, surgical judgment, technical expertise, ethics, and interpersonal skills in order to produce good patient interactions and issue resolution.

In general, plastic surgery helps preserve and strengthen the functionality of various parts of the body and the overall appearance. It can be performed to surgically correct and treat disorders such as; 

  • Maxillofacial disorders (the facial skeleton)
  • Skin conditions such as burns, scars, birthmark, skin cancer, or tattoos
  • Congenital disabilities such as deformed ears or cleft lip, and cleft palate. 


Common Types of Plastic Surgery 

Types of Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is usually performed with the objective of tightening, strengthening, and enhancing skin appearance. It’s also useful when it comes to adjusting the facial features and replacing or removing hair. 

Due to this, plastic surgery may be the best alternative, especially if you wish to change or improve your overall look as well as achieve your desired beauty goals. At times, medical specialists opt for plastic surgery to treat people involved in an accident or who sustain severe skin burns. Apart from restoring the standard bodily functions, it also helps you get rid of scars. 

Basically, there are several common plastic surgery types and procedures. The exact type to opt for usually depends on the objective you want to achieve. They include; 




Dermabrasion is a procedure that medical specialists use to treat various skin conditions. It can be acne scars, sun damage, fine lines, or uneven texture. It involves the use of special rotating equipment to get rid of the outer skin layers, specifically on the face. Once the outer skin layer is removed, it will slowly heal as a new one grows to replace the extracted parts. This gives you soft and fine-looking skin. 

Dermabrasion is most commonly used to repair the appearance of damaged face skin from accidents or previous surgery, as well as to smooth out small facial wrinkles. It is also occasionally used to eliminate keratoses, which are precancerous growths. Dermaplaning is also a popular treatment for deep acne scars. Dermabrasion and dermaplaning can both be done on specific sections of skin or on the full face.

If you're thinking of having skin refinishing surgery, this material will provide you a basic overview of the treatment - when it can help, how it's done, and what outcomes to expect. It cannot, however, answer all of your queries because so much is dependent on your own circumstances. Please see your doctor if you have any questions.


Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation

Breast augmentation is also referred to as breast implant surgery. It’s a procedure that involves placing implants under the breast tissues or the chest. It’s mainly performed to either change the shape of the breast or increase the size.

Most women often opt for breast augmentation as a way of improving their appearance and self-confidence. It can sometimes be done to correct damages caused by a surgical procedure or breast cancer disease. 

A breast augmentation procedure is also known as augmentation mammoplasty. The treatment is known as fat transfer breast augmentation when fat from another region of the patient's body is used to achieve the enhanced breast volume.


Types of breast implants are available?

  • Saline breast implants

Saline breast implants include sterilized salt water. A saline implant will collapse if the implant shell leaks, and the saline will be absorbed and naturally ejected by the body. Saline breast implants have a consistent shape, firmness, and feel and are FDA-approved for augmentation in women over the age of 18.

  • Structured saline breast implants

Structured implants are made of sterile salt water and have an interior structure that helps the implant feel more natural.

  • Silicone breast implants

Silicone breast implants are filled with silicone gel. The gel has a texture similar to genuine breast tissue. If the implant leaks, the gel may either stay inside the implant shell or escape into the breast implant pocket. A leaky silicone gel implant will not collapse.

If you choose silicone implants, you may need to see your plastic surgeon on a frequent basis to ensure that the implants are working correctly. Breast implants can be evaluated with an ultrasound or an MRI.




A facelift is a surgical technique used to restore and mend sagging, wrinkled, or loose skin on the face. Lifting and tightening the facial tissues, removing extra skin, and smoothing out creases or folds on the face are all part of the procedure. A facelift can be combined with a neck lift, eye lift, forehead lift, or nose contouring procedure.

Facelift surgery is a complicated treatment that involves significant understanding of face anatomy, a very specialized set of surgical methods, and a highly developed aesthetic eye. Because not all cosmetic surgeons obtain facelift surgery training during their residency, it's critical to complete your research before selecting a facelift surgeon. 

Inquire about particular training and expertise in facial cosmetic surgery before meeting with possible cosmetic surgeons. Find out how many facelift treatments each has completed, and look at lots of before and after images during your appointment to get a sense of a cosmetic surgeon's aesthetic approach. Men seeking facelift surgery should ensure that their cosmetic surgeon has performed facelifts on male patients; the architecture of the male face differs from that of a woman's and necessitates a knowledgeable approach.


Types of Facelifts

Facelift surgery is tailored to the demands of the patient, and a cosmetic surgeon will modify his or her procedures accordingly.

  • Mini-Facelift

Patients with minor jowling and sagging skin are frequently ideal candidates for a mini-facelift. This is a less invasive method that allows a cosmetic surgeon to tighten deep facial tissues using shorter incisions along the hairline above each ear and/or in the natural creases surrounding the ear. The structural tissues surrounding the cheeks are raised and tightened using these incisions to address jowling, improve the jawline, and revitalize a "tired" look.

Depending on the circumstances, a mini-facelift may be performed under local anesthesia with sedation or under general anesthesia; your cosmetic surgeon will advise you on the best approach for your specific requirements. A mini-facelift can help you address unwanted indications of aging before they become too noticeable, delaying the need for more substantial surgery for several years.

  • Standard Facelift

A regular or "classic" facelift will address moderate to advanced aging around the mid-face and neck more thoroughly. While the operation is more comprehensive than a mini-facelift and so requires more recovery time, the results are more spectacular. A cosmetic surgeon can reposition the deeper tissues beneath the skin and remove excess skin to smooth creases, eliminate jowling and sagging skin under the chin, and restore a naturally youthful contour to the face and neck through incisions hidden in the natural folds just behind the hairline, near the temples, and around the front of the ear.




Rhinoplasty is a surgery performed to reshape or repair the nose. The ultimate goal of rhinoplasty is to improve appearance or correct certain defects such as congenital disabilities or breathing difficulties. 

Many people are self-conscious about their nose shape and seek rhinoplasty for aesthetic reasons. If this is the case, the goal of the procedure would be to make your nose seem better and to make you less self-conscious about it. As a result, it is critical that you understand what you detest about your nose and that you can communicate this to your surgeon. He or she will then be able to tell you what is and is not medically doable. The bridge or tip of the nose is a source of concern for the majority of persons who despise their nose.

In general, Rhinoplasty is highly useful in various ways such as; 

  • Rectifying congenital disabilities
  • Correcting deformities caused by an injury 
  • Increasing or reducing the size of the nose
  • Changing the shape of the bridge
  • Enhancing or reliving breathing issues 
  • Narrowing the shape of the nostrils 
  • Changing the angle of the nose 


  • How is the surgery performed?

Rhinoplasty, or nose reshaping, is done either from within the nostrils (called closed rhinoplasty) or by creating a tiny cut between the nostrils and raising the skin, as illustrated opposite (this is called open rhinoplasty). The exact type of the procedure will be determined by the portion of the nose being treated. The scar might be straight, V-shaped, or zigzag in form.

  • Changing the ridge of the nose

When the nasal bridge is operated on, the physician removes the bone and cartilage that is producing the 'hump.' The nose may then be fractured so that the leftover bone fragments may be pushed closer together to narrow the nose.

  • Changing the tip of the nose

If the tip of the nose is being operated on, the cartilage that forms the support under the tip must be removed or altered in part. This can be accomplished by either closed or open rhinoplasty.

  • Changing the length of the nose

Your surgeon will modify and shorten the septum to assist decrease the tip and shorten the nose overall. Adjusting the cartilage at the tip of the nose can also help to shorten it.


Hair Transplantation

Hair transplantation

This surgical process is also referred to as hair restoration. It involves moving hair follicles from one part of the body to the bald area. The aim of this procedure is to enhance the general bald appearance. Usually, medical practitioners can handle the entire procedure in just a single session. But sometimes, certain situations may require several additional sessions to cover the bald area completely. 

The moved hair follicles are usually permanent. Due to this, most hair transplantation procedures result in the successful growth of hair in the long run. This also indicates that long term care and observation is highly crucial.


What are the steps of a hair transplant procedure?

Hair transplantation entails extracting tiny punch grafts from the hair bearing scalp or a bigger portion of this scalp from a donor location and cutting it into smaller pieces to be used as grafts. These grafts are then relocated to a bald or thinning scalp region. The grafts produced in this way vary in size and form. Round-shaped punch grafts often have 10-15 hairs. The mini-graft comprises two to four hairs, whereas the micro-graft has one to two hairs. Slit grafts, which are put into slits in the scalp, have four to ten hairs each; strip grafts are long and thin, with 30-40 hairs.

To attain appropriate fullness, numerous surgical treatments may be required, with a recovery gap of several months advised between each operation. With a full transplant series, it might take up to two years to see the ultimate result. The quantity of coverage you'll require is determined in part by the color and texture of your hair. Coverage is better with coarse, gray, or light-colored hair than with fine, dark-colored hair. The number of big plugs transplanted during the first session varies from person to person, although the average is around 50. The number of mini-grafts or micro-grafts each session might reach 700.

The "donor area" will be cut short just before surgery so that the grafts may be readily accessible and removed. Your doctor may use a special tube-like device made of sharp carbon steel to punch the round graft out of the donor site so it may be reinstalled in the region to be covered—generally the frontal hairline—for punch grafts. Your doctor will use a knife to remove small parts of hair-bearing scalp, which will be separated into smaller sections and transplanted into tiny holes or slits within the scalp for different types of grafts.

When grafts are taken, your doctor may inject tiny quantities of saline solution into the scalp on a regular basis to preserve optimal skin strength. Stitches can be used to close the donor site holes; for punch grafts, a single stitch can close each punch site; for other types of grafts, a short, straight-line scar will occur. The sutures are often hidden by the surrounding hair.

The grafts are spaced about one-eighth of an inch apart to promote good circulation in the scalp. Later treatments will fill up the gaps between the plugs with additional grafts. Your doctor will take great care in removing and placing grafts to ensure that the transplanted hair grows naturally and that hair development at the donor location is not harmed.

Following the grafting process, the scalp will be washed and wrapped with gauze. You may need to wear a pressure bandage for a few days. Some doctors enable their patients to recuperate without bandages.


Lip Augmentation

Lip augmentation

Lip augmentation is another type of procedure used to increase the size of the lips to give you fuller and plumper lips. Usually, injectable dermal filler is used to increase the lips' shape, structure, and volume. 

Lip augmentation is, however, a temporary procedure. The effects and outcome usually last for six months. After this, you can consider undergoing a second procedure if you want to restore the shape and volume. 


What Are the Main Types of Lip Augmentation?

Choose from two different types of lip augmentation:

  • Synthetic implant. Lip fillers plump and expand the lips. Hyaluronic acid, which is naturally contained in your body, is a popular one. This method is effective since an allergic response is extremely infrequent and the amount injected may be regulated.
  • Fat or dermis graft. This entails extracting your own fat tissue from one place of your body and employing liposuction to fill up your lips. It is effective since there is no risk of an allergic response. The main disadvantage is that having to go through the liposuction treatment takes a bit longer.


Tummy Tucks 

Tummy tucks

The objective of tummy tucks is to improve the shape of the abdomen by getting rid of excess skin and fat. It’s also used to restore the separated or weak muscles in the abdomen and improve the overall body shape. In addition, tummy tucks help improve the appearance of drooping or loose skin. However, it cannot be used to remove defects such as birthmarks or stretch marks.

The outcome of tummy tucks is usually permanent. But you should note that it doesn’t replace exercise routine and dieting if your goal is to lose weight. Therefore, if you intend to maintain the results, you need to have a proper diet and regular exercise.  




Liposuction is a procedure done to enhance overall body shape by removing the excess fat deposits while using a vacuum suction cannula. This is pen-shaped equipment that directly removes the fat deposits under the skin. However, liposuction is not designed for weight loss. Instead, it’s typically done on various body parts, including the stomach, buttocks, back, arms, hips, thighs, and face. 

Sometimes, doctors use ultrasound to first break down the fat deposits before removing them with suction. This method can also be used for other functions, such as extracting the fat tumors and minimizing breast size in men.

Liposuction permanently destroys fat cells, causing the body's form to change. However, if the patient does not maintain a healthy lifestyle following the procedure, the residual fat cells may get larger. The quantity of fat that may be eliminated safely is restricted.

Some hazards include infection, numbness, and scarring. If too much fat is removed, the skin may develop lumpiness or dents. The quantity of fat removed appears to be related to the surgical risks. 


Advantages of Opting for Plastic Surgery

benefits of plastic surgery

These are some of the benefits you can gain through plastic surgery; 

  • Improves the general mental health of an individual: 

There are a number of options to consider if you want to enhance mental health. Plastic surgery procedure is one of the effective methods.

The main aim of plastic surgery is to enhance the overall physical appearance. After the surgery, most people experience a positive decrease in social anxiety. This is due to the new feeling of self-confidence that the new appearance inspires. 

  • Boosts and restores a person’s self-confidence 

Generally, a good physical appearance makes you feel happy and contented with yourself. Therefore, a plastic surgery procedure to enhance appearance eventually translates to improved self-confidence. It also makes you feel free when around other people and encourage you to engage in certain activities. 

  • Weight loss

Weight loss is another benefit of plastic surgery. For instance, people who undergo procedures like a tummy tuck or liposuction usually find it easy to maintain their weight down after the procedure. Also, plastic surgeries encourage most patients to practice healthy eating and regular exercise to keep their weight down. In general, a standard healthy weight translates to a healthy body, free from certain diseases. 

  • Improves physical health 

Certain types of plastic surgery procedures are designed to enhance overall physical health and appearance. For instance, rhinoplasty can help improve breathing and nose esthetics at the same time. Also, breast surgery procedures can be done to enhance body contour. At the same time, it can ease physical discomfort, pain around the back and the neck, and skin irritation. 


Risks Associated with Plastic Surgery

Risks Plastic Surgery

  • Poor and insatiable outcome: The outcome of plastic surgery is a major fear for every patient. In some cases, the procedure can worsen your appearance rather than improving and helping you achieve your desired objective. 
  • Infections risks: Like any other surgery, plastic surgery is also associated with infection risks in the surgery area. This mostly happens if you fail to take care of the wound and clean it frequently as directed by the doctor. 
  • Bleeding: Acute or chronic bleeding is bound to happen during the surgical procedure. However, excessive post bleeding can be problematic and can sometimes be an indication that you are too active after the operation. 
  • Blood clots: Plastic surgery is sometimes associated with blood clotting issues, including deep vein thrombosis, and may require medical attention. 
  • Anesthesia problemsNot everyone can tolerate anesthesia. As such, it can cause severe complications and even death if the situation is not handled immediately. 
  • Damage or numbness of the nerve: During the procedure, nerves can be damaged, causing challenges such as mouth and eyes drooping or inability to make facial expressions. 


Cosmetic Surgery, Plastic Surgery—What’s the Difference?

Cosmetic surgery

You're not alone if you believed cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery were the same thing. Because a large number of plastic surgeons opt to concentrate their practice on cosmetic surgery, the phrases are frequently used interchangeably. This, however, is not technically correct. Cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery are closely related but not the same specialty.

Cosmetic surgery treatments, techniques, and philosophies are solely focused on improving a patient's look. The primary aims are to improve visual appeal, symmetry, and proportion. Aesthetic surgery can be done on any part of the head, neck, or body. Cosmetic operations are considered elective since they address regions that function normally. Doctors from a range of medical professions, including plastic surgeons, conduct cosmetic elective operations.



Plastic surgery is the best treatment option for people who intend to change or improve their overall appearance. Plastic surgery doctors also recommend it as an effective way of correcting body damages and restoring the standard functions. 

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