Last updated date: 08-Jul-2023

Originally Written in English


The joint is the area in which two bones are linked to facilitate the movement of the body parts. These joints are made up of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue. There are several joints in the body and are usually grouped based on motions. They include ball and socket joint, condyloid joint, hinge joint, gliding, joint, saddle joint, and pivot joint. 

Due to the regular movement and the significant function of supporting the body, the joints are highly prone to arthrosis. Arthrosis is also referred to as osteoarthritisand is the most diagnosed type of arthritis. It’s generally a chronic degenerative disorder that impacts the joints as well as cartilage tissue within the bone. Furthermore, it can hinder or limit normal mobility and other activities. 


Types of Arthrosis 

The two common types of arthrosis or osteoarthritis include; 

  • Primary arthrosis 

This is the most prevalent diagnosed type of arthrosis. It’s usually thought to develop mainly because of prolonged wear and tear. As a result, it is correlated with age and can affect the knees, spine, fingers, hips, big toes, and thumbs. 

  • Secondary arthrosis 

This occurs due to already existing joint abnormality, such as trauma or injury. It includes; 

  • Recurrent or sports-related injury, 
  • Inflammatory or autoimmune arthritis, including gout, rheumatoid, or psoriatic, 
  • Infectious arthritis 
  • Inherited joint diseases, like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome double-jointed or hypermobility
  • Congenital joint diseases
  • Metabolic joint disorders


Causes of Arthrosis 

Arthrosis develops when the cartilage that protects the tips of the bones in the joints disintegrates with time. Cartilage is a tough, slippery tissue that allows for almost frictionless joint movement. When the cartilage finally wears away, the bone will begin to rub against the bone.

Arthrosis is sometimes implied as a wear and tear condition. However, this disorder impacts the whole joint apart from the cartilage. It alters the bone and deteriorates the connective tissues, which keep the joint together and connect muscle and the bone. Furthermore, it triggers joint lining inflammation.


Risk Factors of Arthrosis 

Some of the factors that can increase the risk of developing arthrosis include; 

Age: Arthrosis mostly begins in the late 40s. This could be a result of body changes associated with aging. It can be weight gain, weakened muscles, or reduced body ability to heal itself efficiently naturally. 

Genetic factors: The genetics a person inherits might influence the risk of developing arthrosis in the knee, hip, or hand. Certain rare cases of arthrosis are related to single-gene mutations that alter the protein known as collagen. This could result in arthrosis occurring in various joints at a younger age than normal.

Gender: Arthrosis is more frequent and highly intense among women in most joints, unlike in men.

Causes of Arthrosis

Obesity: Obesity is a major contributor to arthrosis, particularly in weight-bearing joints like the hip and knees. 

Joint injury: A significant joint injury or surgery can result in arthrosis in that particular joint with time. Normal exercise and activities cannot trigger the condition. However, excessively strenuous, repeated action, or doing jobs that are physically demanding may increase the danger. 

Joint abnormalities: A person born with anomalies or acquired them as a child can suffer from arthrosis earlier and get more intense than usual.


Signs and Symptoms of Arthrosis 

Arthrosis can arise in any joint within the body. Nevertheless, the most affected parts of the body are the hands, knees, fingertips, hips, and spine along the lower back or the neck. In addition, arthrosis can occur gradually and get worse with time. 

Therefore, some of the commonarthrosis symptoms include; 

  • Pain during or after mobility 
  • Tenderness in the joint area 
  • Joint stiffness that is noticed when awakening and after prolonged inactiveness 
  • Loss of joint flexibility 
  • Swelling due to inflammation of the soft tissue within the joint 
  • Bone spurs 
  • Grating feeling that might be associated with crackling or popping 


Diagnosing Arthrosis 

Mostly when performing a physical examination, the doctor looks for tenderness, stiffness, redness, and flexibility in the injured joint. If they find anything unusual, they will order other diagnostic tests and procedures to assess the condition further. In most cases, they can recommend the following; 

  • Imaging examinations

Doctors often recommend imaging tests whenever they need to obtain images of the affected or injured joint. They can therefore suggest tests and procedures such as; 

X-rays: These are forms of radiographic imaging. Usually, cartilage does not appear on x-ray scans. However, cartilage loss is seen by a narrowing of the distance between the bones in the joint. This technique will also expose reveal spurs near a joint.

Symptoms of Arthrosis

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI generates detailed pictures of bone and soft tissues as well as the cartilage. It utilizes radio waves and a powerful magnetic field for this purpose. Usually, an MRI is not necessary when diagnosing arthrosis. However, it helps give additional details in complex situations.

  • Laboratory tests 

Lab tests aim at examining the joint fluid or blood to help verify the diagnosis. These tests include; 

Blood test: While no blood test exists to diagnose arthrosis, some tests might help rule out various causes of joint pain, including rheumatoid arthritis. 

Analysis of joint fluids: This involves the use of a needle to remove fluid from a damaged joint. The extracted fluid is then analyzed for inflammation. It also helps identify if the pain and discomfort result from gout or infection but not arthrosis. 


Arthrosis Treatment Options 

It’s impossible to reverse the arthrosis condition. However, the available treatment forms aim at reducing pain and enhancing better movement. These arthrosis treatmentoptions can include; 

  • Medications 

Using certain medications can help alleviate arthrosis symptoms such as joint pain. Examples of the commonly prescribed medication include; 

Acetaminophen: This drug has been proven to help patients with mild to severe pain associated with arthrosis. 

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): When used as prescribed, these drugs, including ibuprofen and naproxen sodium, helps alleviate arthrosis pain.

Duloxetine or Cymbalta: This drug, which is typically taken as an antidepressant, is also approved to relieve severe pain, such as arthrosis pain. 

Oral analgesics: Although they cannot ease swelling, Tylenol (acetaminophen), among other pain-relieving drugs, can help reduce pain. 

Topical analgesics: These are over-the-counter drugs that come in gels, creams, and patches. They numb the joint region and give pain relief, particularly for moderate pain.

  • Therapies

Physical therapy: This is a significant type of treatment. The therapist will demonstrate movements and exercises that can help reinforce the muscles surrounding the joint. This improves flexibility and minimizes pain and discomfort. Routine gentle workouts of your own, including walking or swimming, can be highly beneficial. 

Occupational therapy: Occupational therapists may assist in learning how to perform everyday activities without adding more strain on the already sore joint. For people with arthrosis in the hands, using a toothbrush with a wide grip can make brushing the teeth easier. If you have knee arthrosis, sitting on a bench while showering can help alleviate the pain than when standing. 

  • Surgical interventions and other approaches 

For chronic conditions, the use of medication and therapy treatment might not always be effective. In such cases, opting for other procedures can be the best option. They can include the following;

Joint replacement: A surgical procedure to replace the damaged joint is also known as arthroplasty. It involves the removal of the surfaces of the affected joint and repairing them using metal or plastic components. Infections, bleeding, and blood clots are the major surgical threats. Also, artificial joints may wear out or become loose over time and may need to be replaced.

Injection of cortisone: Injecting corticosteroid drugs can alleviate joint pain. When conducting this treatment, the doctor will numb the region surrounding the joint. He or she will then insert a needle through the joint cavity to administer medication. The drug can exacerbate joint injury with time. Therefore, the amount of cortisone injections you can get annually is usually reduced to three or four injections.

Bone realignment: In case arthrosis has caused further harm on one part of the knee compared to the other, an osteotomy could be beneficial. The surgeon usually performs a knee osteotomy by cutting through the bone above or below the knee. They will then extract or insert a wedge of bone. Eventually, this moves the weight further from the worn-out area of the knee. 

Injections of lubricant: Hyaluronic acid injections can provide pain relief by offering additional cushioning to the knee. However, certain research studies indicate that such injections give no more comfort, unlike a placebo. Furthermore, hyaluronic acid is the same as the component that is usually in joint fluid. 



Arthrosis is a common health condition that can develop and affect any joint within the body. In most cases, it occurs in the joint that carries most of a person’s weight, including the hip and knees. People with this condition are likely to experience pain in the joint area, swelling, inflammation, and movement difficulties. Therefore, effective treatment is essential to prevent additional complications. 

For the best comprehensive treatment and care, you can choose the CloudHospital healthcare platform. Here, there is no doubt that you will receive diagnosis and treatment services from renowned medical professionals. Eventually, this will translate to successful management of the condition.