Coxarthrosis

Coxarthrosis

Overview

The most prevalent kind of arthritis is osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint condition. It is caused by joint wear and tear. Hip osteoarthritis (Coxarthrosis) is a condition in which the cartilage in the hip joint thins over time, diminishing the protective barrier between bones and causing bone-on-bone friction and the production of new bone spurs. These modifications lead to the symptoms of Coxarthrosis, which include groin, buttock, and knee pain and stiffness.

 

Coxarthrosis definition

Coxarthrosis definition

The hip joint can be affected by a variety of arthritis. Osteoarthritis, often known as "degenerative joint disease," is the most frequent kind of hip arthritis.

Coxarthrosis develops when the joint surface cartilage (also known as hyaline cartilage or articular cartilage) wears away, exposing the bare bone beneath. Normally, cartilage acts as a "pad" or bearing in the joint. The cartilage bearing is slicker than a hockey puck on ice under normal conditions. When the bearing wears down, the outcome is a roughened joint surface, which produces the pain and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis.

Hip Coxarthrosis is the most prevalent kind of arthritis, with the hip joint being the second most often afflicted major joint in the body. Coxarthrosis is a chronic condition that might manifest itself over months or years. While it is not "curable," it is likely treated with lifestyle changes, drugs, and/or injections. If such treatments fail, hip replacement surgery can frequently reduce the discomfort associated with hip arthritis.

Pain, stiffness, and joint deformity are all symptoms of coxarthrosis. Osteoarthritis symptoms can impair one's ability to move, work, and enjoy life. The majority of individuals with mild arthritis can manage their pain with ice, rest, activity changes, medications, or joint injections. However, for people with severe arthritis, these types of therapies may not be effective. Patients suffering from severe arthritis may benefit from total hip replacement surgery.

 

Coxarthrosis Causes 

The most prevalent kind of arthritis that affects the hip is coxarthrosis. This is simple wear and strain on the joint over time, and it is most common in those over the age of 60. The majority of people will get osteoarthritis as they age.

The joints that become afflicted, how badly they are affected, and when they become affected vary from person to person, depending on various characteristics unique to each individual, such as:

  • Anatomic structure of the hip (the natural strength and/or angles of a person's bones)
  • Weight
  • Activity level

Hip arthritis is more likely to develop as one gets older and has a family history of it. Overweight patients and those who have had hip joint damage may also suffer greater cartilage wear.

Unfortunately, once the arthritic process starts, it is nearly always unstoppable. All of these processes culminate in cartilage loss in the hip joint, resulting in bone-on-bone friction in the hip. The degree of pain and incapacity experienced by patients with arthritis, on the other hand, varies greatly.

 

Structural components of cartilage 

Hyaline cartilage lines the articulating surfaces of the hip joint. This consists of chondrocyte clusters immersed in a substantial amount of extracellular matrix. The matrix is made up of proteoglycans, the most numerous of which are aggrecan and type II collagen fibers. Aggrecan is the most important structural component of cartilage. A branching structure is formed when many molecules of aggrecan are connected to a central spine of hyaluronan.

These macromolecules provide a high osmolarity inside the cartilage, which, in conjunction with the negatively charged glycoprotein moieties, attracts water into the matrix, leading to its' sponginess. When compressive stresses are applied to the cartilage, these water molecules are released and recaptured when the force is removed, giving normal cartilage its viscoelastic qualities. Because there are no capillaries inside the matrix, nutrients are delivered to the chondrocytes by diffusion. This anatomical and physiological arrangement is critical to hyaline cartilage's proper function. 

 

Pathophysiology

Pathophysiology of Coxarthrosis

Coxarthrosis is defined by the loss of structural integrity of the cartilage that lines the articular surface. Senescence of chondrocytes inside the matrix is seen in osteoarthritic cartilage and worsens with age. Proteases breakdown the existing aggrecan and collagen in the cartilage.

The combination of reduced matrix production, increased matrix degradation, and weight-bearing joint wear and strain results in irreversible degeneration of the articular cartilage.

Swelling, reduced stress absorption capabilities (compliance), softening, fracturing, fibrillation, ulceration, and eventually erosion of the cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone are all results of destructive processes . Genetic factors also play a role in the pathophysiology of OA.

There is a healing response in which type-3 collagen is put down. This, however, is non-compliant and creates fibrocartilage, which lacks the compliance and shock-absorbing qualities of type-2 cartilage (hyaline cartilage). Forces are conveyed to the subchondral bone at this phase in the disease process, resulting in accelerated bone turnover, sclerosis, and the production of cysts and osteophytes.

The bone covering the cysts or regions of avascular necrosis may collapse, resulting in flattening of the femoral head a common symptom of severe OA. This is linked with severe pain that appears suddenly, leading in decreased use of the limb, loss of muscle mass and strength around the joint, permitting inappropriate biomechanical forces through the joint and surrounding soft tissues, and therefore disturbing the joint organ as a whole.

 

Stages of Osteoarthritis of the Hip

Stage 1

This is the most severe and early stage of hip osteoarthritis. There are relatively few symptoms of wear and tear between the hip joints during stage 1, potentially with a few bone spurs. Spurs are uneven bone growths that form where two bones meet at joints.

  • Symptoms

In the early stages of hip osteoarthritis, there is little to no discomfort in the afflicted region. As a result, patients with this stage of hip osteoarthritis may be unaware that they have it.

 

Stage 2

This stage is also known as mild hip osteoarthritis. On x-rays of the hip and knee joints, bone spur growths can be visible, although the space between the bones seems normal. Even though the cartilage stays healthy at this stage, the matrix of the cartilage is being broken down due to increased production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases.

  • Symptoms

At this time, people will begin to feel pain and discomfort in the hip region. They may have stiffness, particularly upon waking up in the morning or after sitting for an extended period of time.

 

Stage 3

This stage, also known as moderate hip osteoarthritis, is distinguished by significant erosion of the cartilage between the hip bones. As the joints become inflamed, the gap between the bones narrows and collagen fragments are released into the synovial fluid that lubricates the joints. The joints grow harsher as larger bone spurs emerge.

  • Symptoms

Normal actions such as walking, jogging, squatting, stretching, or kneeling will cause discomfort in those with stage 3 hip osteoarthritis. Swelling might worsen, especially if you engage in strenuous activities over an extended period of time. In the morning or after a long period of sitting, joint activity might create popping or snapping sounds.

 

Stage 4

Stage 4 is the most severe stage of hip osteoarthritis.

At this stage:

  • The cartilage is thin and brittle
  • There is chronic inflammation of the joints
  • Bone spur growth is present
  • The synovial fluid is significantly diminished

 

  • Symptoms

Pain and stiffness are present most of the time in severe osteoarthritis, even when there is no activity or movement. The discomfort might interfere with everyday activity and sleep.

 

Hip Osteoarthritis Symptoms

Hip Osteoarthritis Symptoms

While most patients with hip arthritis have dull, throbbing hip pain, symptoms can vary greatly. Recognizing and treating hip arthritis symptoms early on can help decrease discomfort and limit the course of the illness. The most common symptom is discomfort in and around the hip.

 

Pain in the Hip, Groin, Back, or Thigh

Hip arthritis is most typically felt as an agonizing ache in the front of the groin, which may spread to the thigh. Pain can sometimes be felt on the side of the hip (lateral hip), buttocks, or back of the thigh (posterior thigh).

Hip pain may be aggravated by:

  • Getting up from a sitting posture
  • Standing, walking, and jogging are examples of weight-bearing activities.
  • Certain motions, such as bending to put on shoes and getting in and out of a car, are considered hazardous.
  • Exercising vigorously, such as gardening outside or participating in sports

Mild hip arthritis may only produce little discomfort on occasion. Pain may become more common as hip osteoarthritis progresses. Pain may become more consistent with exercise and be coupled with nighttime stiffness or discomfort.

 

Other Symptoms of Hip Osteoarthritis

In addition to pain, people with hip arthritis often report one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Stiffness

Reduced cushioning from cartilage loss and hip joint swelling can cause the hip to feel rigid. Stiffness is common first thing in the morning or after a lengthy time of sitting. Stiffness might be accompanied or not by a reduction of range of motion.

  • Decreased range of motion

The ball-and-socket design of the hip normally allows for a considerable range of mobility. Hip osteoarthritis can make it difficult to spread the legs apart, straighten the leg, or point the toes inward and move the entire leg in that way (internal rotation).

 

Coxarthrosis treatment

Coxarthrosis treatment

Simple measures that can be performed with little risk include avoiding activities that aggravate symptoms (activity adjustment) and losing weight. Nutritional supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin, may be beneficial to certain patients. However, the data on these goods is a little erratic. They do not assist everyone.

If those therapies are ineffective, in conjunction with a physician, the following steps may include over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen and anti-inflammatories such as ibuprofen or naproxen, among others.

However, these medications are not for everyone, and if you haven't taken them before, you should talk to your doctor beforehand. Prescription-strength nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) can sometimes be provided; however, this must be done in collaboration with a physician, and these drugs can have dangers and adverse effects.

Some individuals may benefit from joint injections, particularly intra-articular corticosteroid injections. However, joint injections tend to be less helpful for hip arthritis than for arthritis in other joints, possibly due to the difficulties of precisely injecting the hip joint. Patients with severe arthritis who have exhausted all other options may benefit from complete hip replacement surgery.

 

Managing arthritis pain and fatigue

Several approaches can be used to manage the pain associated with osteoarthritis of the hip including:

  • Changes in activity Some hip arthritis symptoms may be relieved by suitable types of exercise and weight loss when necessary.
  • Nutritional supplements (glucosamine and chondroitin) are beneficial to certain individuals, although the evidence on these supplements is not uniformly supportive of their usage.
  • If medically indicated, non-narcotic pain relievers (acetaminophen) or over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) can be beneficial.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAID) are effective for certain individuals, although long-term use of these treatments is generally avoided.
  • Arthritis unloader braces or hip sleeves can assist with some types of arthritis.
  • Joint injections (corticosteroid or "cortisone" injections) might be beneficial.
  • If non-operative treatments are ineffective, total hip replacement surgery may be utilized.

 

Medications

  • Nutritional supplements (glucosamine and chondroitin) are beneficial to certain individuals, although the evidence on these supplements is not uniformly supportive of their usage.
  • If medically indicated, non-narcotic pain relievers (acetaminophen/Tylenol) or over-the-counter, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) can be beneficial.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAID) are effective for certain individuals, although long-term use of these treatments is generally avoided.
  • Joint injections (corticosteroid or "cortisone" injections) might be beneficial.

 

Surgical treatments for hip arthritis

Surgery for hip arthritis

If non-operative treatments have failed to alleviate a person's condition, surgery may be the best option for treating hip arthritis. The type of surgery required is determined on the patient's age, anatomy, and underlying disease.

Hip arthritis surgery choices range from surgeries that maintain the hip joint to those that fully reconstruct it. They are as follows:

1. Hip preservation surgeries: These are operations that prevent damaged cartilage from wearing down further. They include:

  • Hip osteotomy: To avoid cartilage, the femur or pelvic bone is cut to correct its angle in the joint. If the patient is young and the arthritis is restricted to a small portion of the hip joint, an osteotomy may be acceptable. It enables the surgeon to twist the arthritic bone away from the hip joint, putting weight on relatively uninvolved areas of the ball and socket. The benefit of this sort of surgery is that the patient's own hip joint is preserved, which might give many years of pain relief without the drawbacks of a prosthetic hip. The downsides include a lengthier recuperation period and the likelihood of arthritis developing in the newly positioned hip.
  • Hip arthrotomy: This is where the joint is opened up to remove loose fragments of cartilage, bone spurs or tumors, or fractures are repaired.
  • Hip arthroscopy: An arthroscopy is used in this minimally invasive surgery to clear up loose bodies in the joint or to remove bone spurs.

 

2. Joint fusion (arthrodesis): The pelvis and femur are surgically joined with pins or rods to immobilize the joint in this procedure. This reduces discomfort but causes the hip to become chronically stiff, making walking more difficult.

 

3. Total or partial joint replacement surgery

  • Total hip replacement, also known as total hip arthroplasty, is the removal of the hip's ball and socket and replacement with artificial implants.
  • Partial hip replacement, also known as hemiarthroplasty, is replacing only one side of the hip joint — the femoral head – rather than both sides as in total hip replacement. This operation is most typically performed on elderly individuals who have suffered a hip fracture.
  • Hip resurfacing: In this less invasive option to complete hip replacement (which may be appropriate for certain individuals), the arthritic cartilage and acetabulum (socket) are replaced while the person's original femoral head is kept.

 

Alternative remedies and treatments

Nutritional supplementation (the most prevalent types of which are glucosamine and chondroitin) is beneficial to certain individuals, albeit the data on this is not totally supportive of their efficacy. Acupuncture has been shown in several trials to reduce pain associated with hip osteoarthritis.

Although there is no "hard science" on this subject, most hip surgeons and rheumatologists (doctors who treat arthritic disorders non-surgically) agree that patients with hip osteoarthritis should avoid impact sports such as jogging in order to slow the disease's progression.

It is critical that people with hip osteoarthritis avoid reducing their activity level and maintain their fitness. However, this frequently necessitates some adjustment of exercise regimens - running and walking programs are typically poorly tolerated by people with hip osteoarthritis. Stationary biking, swimming, and water aerobics are typically well tolerated and encouraged.

 

Impacts on Daily Life

  • Daily activities

Hip osteoarthritis can impair a person's ability to walk, climb stairs, enter or leave a car, sit or rise comfortably, conduct chores, and enjoy daily activities. Even mild to severe hip osteoarthritis can have a negative influence on athletic performance and enjoyment of sports, especially impact sports and running sports.

  • Energy

Many patients report that the persistent pain associated with hip osteoarthritis contributes to tiredness. Although osteoarthritis of the hip has no effect on metabolism, some patients attribute weight gain to the inactivity induced by hip discomfort caused by osteoarthritis of the hip.

  • Mobility and independence

Hip osteoarthritis can impair one's ability to walk, climb stairs, enter or exit a car, and enjoy daily activities. These factors have an impact on one's capacity to stay independent, especially as the condition progresses.

In some people, hip osteoarthritis makes sexual intercourse painful. Aside from that, it has no effect on a patient's ability to become pregnant or have children. It is crucial to remember, however, that some arthritis drugs must be used with caution during pregnancy. It's critical to tell your obstetrician and family doctor about any drugs or nutritional supplements you're taking.

  • Relationships

Hip osteoarthritis can have a negative impact on relationships and social interactions, making it harder to go about. Sexual intercourse can be painful in some people with more severe hip arthritis due to the discomfort associated with moving the hips that comes with the illness.

  • Joint deformity

Hip osteoarthritis is connected with joint deformity, which can result in leg length disparity. These joint abnormalities, including leg-length inequality, are not easily controlled with non-surgical therapies, but can occasionally be rectified during hip replacement surgery for individuals who choose to have that procedure. Shoe lifts can help patients with leg length discrepancies before surgery and are occasionally employed if the leg length cannot be made equal at the time of hip replacement surgery.

 

Conclusion 

The most prevalent kind of arthritis is osteoarthritis, often known as degenerative joint disease. It is most common in the elderly. This condition affects the tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage). The cartilage in a person with osteoarthritis becomes damaged and worn down, resulting in pain, edema, stiffness, and restricted mobility in the afflicted joint. Although osteoarthritis may affect any joint, including the hip, knees, hands, and spine, the hip is the most usually afflicted. The condition can seldom affect the shoulders, wrists, and feet.