Last updated date: 07-Jul-2023

Originally Written in English




Diabetes is a condition that occurs when your blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is abnormally high. Blood glucose is your primary source of energy and is obtained from the foods you consume. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, aids in the transport of glucose from food into your cells for use as energy.

 Sometimes your body does not produce enough or any insulin, or it does not use insulin effectively. Glucose then remains in your blood rather than reaching your cells. Having too much glucose in your blood can lead to health problems over time. Although there is no cure for diabetes, you can take steps to manage it and stay healthy. 


What is Diabetes?


Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a medical condition that causes high levels of blood sugar. Normally, the hormone insulin takes up glucose or sugar from the bloodstream into the cells for storage and energy use. Glucose is essential for a person’s health since it provides energy for the tissues and muscles. It’s also the major source of fuel for the brain.

However, with diabetes, the body can fail to produce sufficient insulin or may not utilize insulin effectively. If left untreated or diagnosed later, this disease could damage the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and other body organs.


Blood Sugar

Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the three major nutrients found in most foods. Sugars, along with starch and fiber, are one of three types of carbohydrates.

Sugar comes in a variety of forms. Some sugars are simple, while others are more complicated. Sugar (sucrose) is composed of two simpler sugars, glucose and fructose. Lactose (milk sugar) is composed of glucose and a simple sugar known as galactose. Starches, such as bread, pasta, rice, and similar foods, contain long chains of different simple sugar molecules. Before the body can absorb sucrose, lactose, carbohydrates, and other complex sugars, enzymes in the digestive tract must break them down into simple sugars.

When the body absorbs simple sugars, it usually converts them all into glucose, which is the body's main source of fuel. Glucose is a sugar that travels through the bloodstream and is absorbed by cells. Glucose can also be produced by the body from fats and proteins. Blood "sugar" is actually blood glucose.


How Does the Insulin Works?


Insulin refers to the hormone produced by a gland behind and under the stomach, pancreas. Typically, the pancreas releases insulin into the blood. From there, it circulates in the body, allowing glucose to reach the cells.

Insulin reduces the level of sugar in the blood. This also means that as the level of blood sugar reduces, the production of insulin in the pancreas also decreases.

Sugar or glucose is the primary source of energy for the body cells that form the muscles and tissues. Generally, there are two main sources of glucose; the liver and food. It is absorbed into the bloodstream through which it gets into cells. Insulin helps achieve this process.

On the other hand, the liver produces and keeps insulin. At times, the levels of glucose are low probably because you have not taken food for a certain period. In such a situation, the liver will break down the glycogen into sugar to help maintain the standard level in an average range. 


Types of Diabetes

Types of Diabetes

The following are the main types of diabetes;

  • Type 1 diabetes

This is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks itself. The cells that produce insulin in the pancreas are usually killed in this situation. Type 1 diabetes affects up to 10% of individuals with diabetes. It's most commonly seen in children, adolescents, and young adults, although it can occur at any age. Initially, it was referred to as juvenile diabetes.

Patients with type 1 diabetes must take insulin on a daily basis. Because of this, it's also known as insulin-dependent diabetes.

  • Type 2 diabetes

This form of diabetes occurs when the body does not produce adequate insulin or when the body's cells do not respond to insulin accordingly. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes mellitus and affects up to 90 percent of individuals with the disease. It commonly affects middle-aged and old people.

Type 2 diabetes is also known as adult-onset diabetes or insulin-resistant diabetes. It was probably referred to as "having a bit of sugar" by the older generation.

  • Prediabetes

Prediabetes is the stage prior to the onset of type 2 diabetes. While the levels of blood glucose are higher than average, they are not yet high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. A person with prediabetes has increased chances of developing type 2 diabetes. They are also prone to other health conditions, including stroke and heart disease. 

  • Gestational diabetes

Some women develop this form of diabetes during pregnancy. Typically, gestational diabetes disappears after the baby is born. However, it puts the mother at a high risk of getting type 2 diabetes in the future.


Other less prevalent types of diabetes mellitus are;

  • Monogenic diabetes syndromes:

 These are uncommon genetic types of diabetes that account for about 4 percent of all cases. Maturity-onset diabetes and neonatal diabetes are examples of monogenic diabetes syndromes.

  • Drug or chemical induced diabetes: 

This type of diabetes may occur following an organ transplant. It can also be as a result of HIV/AIDS treatment, or because of using glucocorticoid steroid.

This is another type of diabetes that only affects people who have the disorder.


Causes of Diabetes

Causes of Diabetes

The following are the possible diabetes causes and triggers based on the type;

Causes of type 1 diabetes

The actual causes and triggers of type 1 diabetes remain unclear. However, physicians understand that the body's immune system responsible for fighting pathogens, targets and kills the pancreas cells producing insulin. Due to this, the body remains with little to no insulin at all. Glucose then piles up in the bloodstream rather than being carried towards the cells.

Medical providers also believe that type 1 diabetes occurs due to a combination of genes vulnerability and certain environmental aspects. However, the specific forms of these aspects are unknown. In addition, diabetes doctors don’t usually consider weight as a factor in this disorder.


Possible causes of gestational diabetes

Normally, the placenta generates hormones that help sustain the pregnancy in an expectant mother. These hormones can sometimes cause the cells to become insulin resistant. When this happens, the pancreas reacts by releasing extra insulin to conquer the resistance. Nonetheless, the pancreas might not always keep up. As a result, very little sugar enters the cells, and most remains in the bloodstream. This eventually causes gestational diabetes. 


Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes causes

The cells tend to be resistant to insulin activities in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the pancreas cannot create sufficient insulin to combat the resistance. The glucose will then pile up in the bloodstream rather than getting into the cells where it is necessary for energy.

There are no exact reasons why this occurs. However, certain environmental aspects and genes are thought to contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is strongly associated with the emergence of type 2 diabetes. Despite this, not all people diagnosed with type 2 are obese or overweight.


Risk Factors of Diabetes

Risk Factors of Diabetes

There are several risk factors of diabetes based on the type.

Type 1 diabetes risk factors:

  • Family history: You are at risk of developing diabetes type 1 if your sibling or parent has the disease.
  • Environmental factors, including exposure to viral disease
  • Autoantibodies (damaging immunity cells) presence

Type 2 diabetes risk factors:

  • Being inactive
  • Weight (excess fatty tissue)
  • Age: Older people have a high chance of developing diabetes type 2. This could be due to loss of muscle mass, weight gain, or fewer activities.
  • Family history: You are likely to develop the disease if your parent or sibling has it.
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Ethnicity or race
  • High blood pressure
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglyceride

Gestational diabetes risk factors:

  • Age; Women above the age of 25 have high chances of developing gestational diabetes
  • Having too much weight prior to pregnancy
  • Family history and personal medical history
  • Ethnicity or race


Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

If the blood glucose level is significantly elevated, the symptoms of the two types of diabetes can be very similar.

The symptoms of high blood glucose levels include

  • Increased thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Increased hunger

Glucose spills into the urine when the blood glucose level exceeds 160 to 180 mg/dL. When the amount of glucose in the urine increases, the kidneys excrete more water to dilute a large amount of glucose. People with diabetes urinate a lot because their kidneys produce a lot of urine (polyuria). Excess urination causes abnormal thirst (polydipsia). People may lose weight as a result of excessive calorie loss in the urine. People frequently feel overly hungry to compensate.

Other symptoms of diabetes include

  • Blurred vision
  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Decreased endurance during exercise


Type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes frequently appear suddenly and dramatically. Diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious complication in which the body produces too much acid, can develop quickly. In addition to the typical diabetes symptoms of excessive thirst and urination, the early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and, in children, abdominal pain. As the body attempts to correct the acidity of the blood, breathing becomes deep and rapid, and the breath smells fruity and like nail polish remover. Diabetic ketoacidosis, if left untreated, can quickly progress to coma and death.

Following the onset of type 1 diabetes, some people experience a long but temporary period of near-normal glucose levels (honeymoon phase) due to partial recovery of insulin secretion.


Type 2 diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes may be asymptomatic for years or decades before being diagnosed. The symptoms can be subtle. Increased urination and thirst begin mildly and gradually worsen over weeks or months. People eventually feel extremely tired, develop blurred vision, and may become dehydrated. During the early stages of diabetes, the blood glucose level can become abnormally low, a condition known as hypoglycemia.

Because people with type 2 diabetes produce some insulin, ketoacidosis rarely develops, even when the disease is left untreated for a long time. Blood glucose levels can occasionally become extremely high (exceeding 1,000 mg/dL). Such high levels are frequently the result of an added stressor, such as an infection or medication use.

When blood glucose levels reach dangerously high levels, people may experience severe dehydration, which can result in mental confusion, drowsiness, and seizures, a condition known as hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Routine blood glucose testing can detect many people with type 2 diabetes before they develop dangerously high blood glucose levels.

Apart from the general signs and symptoms of diabetes, other additional symptoms of diabetes in men are;

On the other hand, additional diabetes symptoms in women can include the following;


Diabetes Diagnosis

Diabetes Diagnosis

Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms often emerge unexpectedly. Besides, they are usually the major reason for testing the level of blood sugar in the body. Diabetes medical experts advise screening routine as the symptoms of certain forms of diabetes and prediabetes develop gradually or may go unnoticed. They also suggest that individuals with the following characteristics should have diabetes screening; 

  • Any person who is 45 years of age and above 
  • People with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 25 regardless of the age 
  • Women with a previous medical history of gestational diabetes 
  • Individuals diagnosed with prediabetes 


Gestational diabetes diagnostic tests

With gestational diabetes, the doctor will evaluate the likelihood of developing the disorder in the early stage of pregnancy. They will conduct some tests to check if; 

You have higher chances of developing gestational diabetes because of the following factors;

  • You were overweight or obese at the onset of the pregnancy, 
  • You were diagnosed with gestational diabetes in your previous pregnancy, or 
  • You have a diabetic father, mother, father, child, or sibling 

You have an average possibility of developing gestation diabetes. The doctor will screen for the disorder in the second trimester (between 24 to 28 weeks).

Alternatively, the medical provider can use screening tests such as;

  • Initial glucose challenge test
  • Follow up glucose tolerance testing


Type 1 and 2 diabetes and prediabetes diagnostic tests

Prediabetes diagnostic tests

Healthcare providers often conduct the following tests and procedures to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and prediabetes; 

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test

 Fasting is not necessary with this type of blood test. It focuses on analyzing the average level of blood sugar for the last two to three months. Also, it evaluates the level of blood sugar linked to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin refers to the oxygen-transporting protein within red blood cells.


Oral glucose tolerance test

This diabetes blood test requires you to fast overnight. The fasting blood sample is then taken to measure the level of blood sugar. After that, the doctor will ask you to take a sugary beverage where the diabetes blood sugar levels are measured periodically for up to two hours.


Random blood sugar test

This involves taking a blood sample at a random period. Irrespective of the food you ate previously, a higher level indicates that you have diabetes.

If the doctor suspects type 1 diabetes, they will proceed to perform a diabetes urine test. This is to check for the presence of byproduct production. The byproduct typically forms when the body uses fat and muscle tissues for energy because it lacks sufficient insulin to utilize the available sugar or ketones. Furthermore, the doctor is likely to conduct another test to check whether you have autoantibodies, which are destructive immune system cells. These cells are usually linked to type 1 diabetes.


Screening for Diabetes

Screening for Diabetes

During a routine physical examination, blood glucose levels are frequently checked. Because diabetes is so common in later life, checking blood glucose levels on a regular basis is especially important in the elderly. People with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, may be unaware of their condition.

Even in people who are at high risk of developing type 1 diabetes, doctors do not perform routine screening tests (such as siblings or children of people who have type 1 diabetes). However, screening tests for people at risk of type 2 diabetes, including those who are obese, are essential.

  • Are 35 years or older
  • Have overweight or obesity
  • Have a sedentary lifestyle
  • Have a family history of diabetes
  • Have prediabetes
  • Have had diabetes during pregnancy or had a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds (4,000 grams) at birth
  • Have high blood pressure
  • Have a lipid disorder such as high cholesterol
  • Have cardiovascular disease
  • Have fatty liver disease
  • Have polycystic ovary disease
  • Have racial or ethnic ancestry that is associated with high risk
  • Have HIV infection

Diabetes screening should be done at least every three years for people who have these risk factors. Diabetes risk can also be estimated using the American Diabetes Association's risk calculators. Doctors may perform an oral glucose tolerance test or measure fasting blood glucose levels and hemoglobin A1C levels. If the test results are borderline, doctors perform the screening tests more frequently, at least once a year.


Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes Treatment

The treatment of diabetes can include blood sugar monitoring, oral diabetes medications, and insulin depending on the type. In addition, practicing a healthy and nutritious diet also contribute to diabetes management. Other essential factors include regular exercises and maintaining an average weight

The available treatment options for all forms of diabetes are; 


Healthy diet

Dietary management is critical for people with either type of diabetes mellitus. A healthy, balanced diet and efforts to maintain a healthy weight are recommended by doctors. Meeting with a dietitian or a diabetes educator to develop an optimal eating plan can be beneficial for people with diabetes. This type of strategy includes

  • Avoiding simple sugars and processed foods
  • Increasing dietary fiber
  • Limiting portions of carbohydrate-rich and fatty foods (especially saturated fats)

Insulin users should avoid long periods between meals to avoid hypoglycemia. Although protein and fat in the diet contribute to the number of calories consumed, only carbohydrate consumption has a direct effect on blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association has a wealth of diet advice, including recipes. Even when people eat a healthy diet, cholesterol-lowering medications are frequently required to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Carbohydrate counting or the carbohydrate exchange system may be used by people with type 1 diabetes and certain people with type 2 diabetes to match their insulin dose to the carbohydrate content of their meal. The amount of carbohydrate in a meal is "counted" to calculate the amount of insulin taken before eating. However, each person's carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (the amount of insulin taken for each gram of carbohydrate in the meal) varies, and people with diabetes must work closely with a dietician who has experience working with people with diabetes to master the technique.

Although there is little evidence to support this approach, some experts recommend using the glycemic index (a measure of the impact of an ingested carbohydrate-containing food on blood glucose level) to distinguish between rapidly and slowly metabolized carbohydrates.


Physical activities

Diabetes patients, as with anyone else, need routine physical activity. Exercise helps reduces blood sugar levels by carrying glucose into cells, where they are used for energy. In addition, exercise improves insulin sensitivity, hence the body will require less insulin to move sugar to the cells.


Treatment options for type 1 diabetes and 2 diabetes include;

Monitoring Diabetes Treatment

Type 1 diabetes and 2 diabetes

Monitoring blood glucose levels is an important part of diabetes management. Routine blood glucose monitoring provides the information needed to adjust medications, diet, and exercise regimens as needed. It is risky to wait until symptoms of low or high blood glucose levels appear before checking blood glucose levels.


Diabetes treatment goals

Monitoring Diabetes Treatment

Experts recommend that people keep their blood glucose levels

  • Between 80 and 130 mg/dL fasting (before meals)
  • Less than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after meals

Hemoglobin A1C levels should be less than 7%.

Some people use a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), which is an external device that is attached to the body and records blood glucose levels continuously. Doctors use a different measurement when using this type of device to determine how well blood glucose levels are controlled. They employ a value known as time in range. Time in range is the percentage of time that the blood glucose level is at the person's target level over a specific time period. The typical range is 70–180 mg/mL.

Because aggressive treatment to achieve these goals increases the risk of blood glucose falling too low (hypoglycemia), these goals are adjusted for some people, such as the elderly, for whom hypoglycemia is especially undesirable.

Other objectives include keeping systolic blood pressure under 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure under 90 mm Hg. The blood pressure goal for diabetics who have heart disease or are at high risk for heart disease is less than 130/80 mm Hg.

Many things cause blood glucose levels to change:

  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Stress
  • Illness
  • Medications
  • Time of day

Blood glucose levels may rise after people consume carbohydrates-rich foods they were unaware of. Emotional stress, infection, and many medications have been shown to raise blood glucose levels. Many people's blood glucose levels rise in the early morning hours due to the normal release of hormones (growth hormone and cortisol), a reaction known as the dawn phenomenon. If the body releases certain hormones in response to low blood glucose levels, blood glucose levels may skyrocket (Somogyi effect). Exercise can cause glucose levels in the blood to drop.


Monitoring blood glucose levels

Blood glucose levels can be measured easily at home or anywhere.

A fingerstick glucose test is the most commonly used method for monitoring blood glucose. A drop of blood obtained by pricking the tip of the finger with a small lancet is used by the majority of blood glucose monitoring devices (glucose meters). The lancet contains a tiny needle that can be inserted into the finger or placed in a spring-loaded device that pierces the skin quickly and easily. The pricking causes only minor discomfort for the majority of people. A drop of blood is then placed on a reagent strip.

The chemicals in the strip change depending on the glucose level. The glucose meter detects changes in the test strip and displays the results on a digital screen. Some devices allow blood to be drawn from alternative sites, such as the palm, forearm, upper arm, thigh, or calf. Home glucose meters are about the size of a deck of cards.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems employ a small glucose sensor placed beneath the skin. Every few minutes, the sensor measures the blood glucose levels. CGMs are classified into two types, each with a distinct purpose:

  • Professional
  • Personal

Professional Continuous glucose monitoring (CGMs) continuously monitor blood glucose levels over time (72 hours to up to 14 days). This data is used by doctors to make treatment recommendations. Professional CGMs do not provide data to the diabetic.

Personal CGMs are worn by the user and provide real-time blood glucose data on a small portable monitor or a smart phone connected to the device. Alarms on the Continuous glucose monitoring system can be set to sound when blood glucose levels fall too low or rise too high, allowing the device to help people identify potentially dangerous changes in blood glucose levels.

  • Insulin injection 

Insulin injection 

Insulin therapy is vital for individuals with type 1 diabetes to ensure they survive. On the other hand, most patients with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes require insulin treatment. Insulin comes in a variety of forms, such as; 

  • Short-acting (regular insulin)
  • Rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin
  • Intermediate options

The doctor can prescribe a combination of insulin types to use during the day and night, based on your needs.

  • Oral and other forms of medications 

The doctor can sometimes prescribe oral or injectable drugs. Certain diabetes drugs trigger the pancreas to make and release extra insulin. Others prevent the liver from producing and releasing glucose, hence you will require less insulin to move glucose into the cells.

  • Pancreas transplantation

A pancreas transplant could be an option for some patients with type 1 diabetes. You will no longer require insulin therapy if the pancreas transplantation procedure is successful.

However, you should note that pancreas transplants are not always effective, and they come with significant risks. Furthermore, you will have to take immunosuppressive medications for the rest of your life to avoid organ rejection.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes and are obese or have a BMI greater than 35 can gain from this form of surgery. However, it is not exclusively considered a type 2 diabetes cure. The blood sugar levels in people who have had gastric bypass surgery tend to significantly improve. Nonetheless, the long-term complications and benefits of this treatment for type 2 diabetes are unknown.


Gestational Diabetes Treatment

Gestational Diabetes Treatment

It's important to keep your blood sugar under control to ensure that the baby remains safe. This also helps prevent complications during childbirth. In addition to a balanced diet and regular exercise, the care plan can include blood sugar monitoring and, in other cases, the use of insulin and oral drugs.

During labor, the doctor will check and keep track of the blood sugar levels. The baby can produce high insulin levels if your blood sugar increases. This can cause low blood sugar soon after birth.


Prediabetes Treatment

Prediabetes Treatment

For people with prediabetes, making healthy lifestyle decisions is essential since it helps restore normal blood sugar levels. Besides, it prevents them from rising to the levels detected in type 2 diabetes. Regular exercise and having a balanced diet will help you maintain a healthy weight. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by exercising for about 150 minutes per week and losing 7 percent of the average weight.

Occasionally, medications like Metformin, including Glumetza and Glucophage might be an option for people with increased risk of the disorder. This also includes the situation where prediabetes is becoming worse or you have a fatty liver disorder or cardiovascular disease.


Complications of Diabetes

Complications of Diabetes

Continuing diabetes complications normally appear progressively. The longer a person has diabetes and the less effective it becomes to regulate blood sugar. This also increases the likelihood of developing complications. The complications of diabetes can become debilitating or even fatal in the long run.

Some of the potential diabetes side effects and complications that could arise include:

  • Cardiovascular disorders

Diabetes significantly raises the possibility of certain cardiovascular diseases. They include coronary artery disease (angina), stroke, heart attack, and artery narrowing (atherosclerosis). In general, you are more likely to develop a stroke or heart disease if you are suffering from diabetes.

  • Nephropathy

A person’s kidney consists of multiple clusters of the blood vessel (glomeruli) which remove waste products from the blood. At times, diabetes mellitus can harm this fragile filtering system. Kidney failure or permanent end-stage kidney disease can result from severe damages. Hence dialysis or a kidney transplant might be necessary.

Too much glucose can harm the walls of the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) that nourish the nerves, particularly in the legs. Tingling, burning, numbness, or pain that starts at the toes or fingers tips and extends upward can result.

If left untreated, the affected limbs will lose their ability to feel. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea may occur due to nerve damage linked to digestion. It can cause erectile dysfunction in men.

  • Vision loss and retinopathy

Diabetic Mellitus can cause damage to the blood vessels in the eye (retina), which can lead to blindness. Diabetic patients are more likely to develop severe vision problems including cataracts and glaucoma.

  • Foot damage

Foot nerve damage or inadequate blood flow raises the risk of a variety of diabetes foot complications. Cuts or blisters, if left untreated, may get severe infections that usually heal slowly. Amputation of the foot, toe, or leg may be necessary as a result of these infections.

Occasionally, patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes experience symptoms of depression. This could affect the treatment and management procedures of diabetes.

Dementia, which includes Alzheimer's disease, is linked to type 2 diabetes. A poorly controlled blood-sugar poses a higher risk. Even though theories on how these conditions are related exist, none of them has been proven.

  • Skin disorders

Diabetes makes the skin more vulnerable to a range of skin disorders such as fungal and bacterial infections.

  • Hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose levels are the most common complication of treating high blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). People who are frail, sick enough to require frequent hospitalizations, or who are taking multiple medications are most at risk. Long-acting sulfonylurea medications or insulin are the most likely to cause low blood glucose levels in people with severe or multiple medical problems, particularly in the elderly. People who take these medications are also more likely to experience serious symptoms such as fainting and falling, as well as difficulty thinking or using parts of their bodies due to low blood glucose levels.

Hypoglycemia in older people may be less obvious than in younger people. Hypoglycemia-induced confusion can be confused with dementia or the sedative effect of medications. Also, people who have difficulty communicating (such as after a stroke or as a result of dementia) may be unable to alert others to their symptoms.


Gestational Diabetes Complications

Gestational Diabetes Complications

If gestational diabetes is left untreated or not controlled, it could lead to complications for the mother and the baby as well. The complications that are likely to develop in the baby include;


Low level of blood sugar

 Babies born to women with gestational diabetes may sometimes experience low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) right after delivery. This is because the production of insulin is extremely high. However, the child's blood sugar level can be brought back to normal with timely feedings and, in some cases, an intravenous glucose solution.


Excess growth

Too much glucose in the mother’s bloodstream might cross the placenta, causing the pancreas of your baby to produce more insulin. This will result in the baby being too big (macrosomia). C-section deliveries are more likely for large infants.


Risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future

Children born to mothers with gestational diabetes are more vulnerable to developing type 2 diabetes in the future and being obese. On the other hand, a mother with gestational diabetes can experience the following complications;

  • Preeclampsia
  • Subsequent gestational diabetes


Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Type 1 diabetes

There are no treatments that can prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Some medications may cause remission of early type 1 diabetes in some people, possibly by preventing the immune system from destroying pancreatic cells. These changes, however, are only temporary, and the medications have side effects that limit their use.

  • Type 2 diabetes

Changes in lifestyle can help prevent type 2 diabetes. Overweight people who lose as little as 7% of their body weight and increase their physical activity (for example, walking 30 minutes per day) can reduce their risk of diabetes mellitus by more than 50%. Metformin, a diabetes medication, may reduce the risk of diabetes in people with impaired glucose regulation. 



Diabetes is associated with extremely high levels of blood sugar or blood glucose. Forms of diabetes, such as type 1, are caused by circumstances beyond your control. Others, such as type 2, can be avoided by making healthier food choices, increasing physical activity, and losing weight.

Consult the diabetes doctor near you about the possibility of developing the disease. If you are vulnerable, consider undergoing blood sugar tests and examinations. You should also follow your doctor's recommendations for blood sugar management.