Inflammatory diseases

    Last updated date: 13-Mar-2023

    Originally Written in English

    Inflammatory Diseases

    Inflammatory Diseases

    The sensory organs that are a part of the face and neck are the ear, nose, and throat. Some important head structures, such as the sinuses and Eustachian tubes, are common among them. Many ears, nose, and throat (ENT) issues can affect people, and clinicians sometimes group these illnesses. The ear, nose, and throat may be impacted by several conditions. While some ENT issues are simple, others can be trickier and involve different body systems. Many ENT problems can be treated by a general practitioner; however, certain patients may need to consult a specialist for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.


    Throat Infections

    Throat Infections

    Tonsil and/or throat infections are frequent, especially in children. Although bacteria like streptococcal bacteria can also cause throat infections, viruses are typically the culprit. Swollen, red tonsils, and excruciating swallowing pain are the common symptoms. An examination of the throat served as the basis for the diagnosis. Bacterial tonsillopharyngitis may develop into a tonsillar abscess if left untreated. Analgesics are used to treat pain, and antibiotics are used to treat streptococcal infections. The tonsils may sometimes be surgically removed. The body's immunological defense system includes lymphoid tissue found in the tonsils. As a result, bacteria that enter the nose and throat frequently infect the tonsils and adjacent throat tissue. Even after having their tonsils removed, some people still develop throat infections.


    Throat Infection Causes

    Viruses frequently cause throat infections. The most frequent culprit is one of the viruses that cause the common cold, such as the respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza virus, or rhinovirus. Less frequently, a different virus is implicated, like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or the mononucleosis-causing Epstein-Barr virus.

    Less than one-third of individuals with throat infections have bacterial infections. The most frequent bacterial cause, group A streptococcus (strep throat), typically affects kids between the ages of 5 and 15. Children under the age of three and elderly people have a lower prevalence of strep throat. Complications from untreated strep throat can occasionally occur. Rheumatic fever, renal inflammation (glomerulonephritis), and tonsillar cellulitis or abscess are possible complications. Occasionally, throat infections are brought on by bacterial diseases like gonorrhea and diphtheria.


    Throat Infection Symptoms

     Throat Infection Symptoms

    People who have a throat infection typically experience excruciating pain when speaking and swallowing. The discomfort can occasionally be felt in the ears as well. Fever, headaches, and stomachaches are common in some patients. The tonsils may have white patches on them and are red and swollen. The neck's lymph nodes could swell and hurt.

    The normal tiny pits in the tonsils can occasionally fill with white, hard discharges that resemble tiny stones in persons who have chronic tonsil infections. These stones can trap bacteria that cause bad breath and can make patients more susceptible to getting tonsillitis again.

    A runny, blocked nose and a cough are common symptoms of cold virus infections. People who have mononucleosis frequently experience severe fatigue and have several enlarged lymph nodes, and if their tonsils continue to swell, this may start to restrict airflow during breathing, resulting in noisy breathing.


    Throat Infection Diagnosis

    By looking at the throat, doctors can identify a throat infection. However, since bacterial illnesses and viral infections frequently have the same effects on the throat, it can be challenging for clinicians to determine the cause simply by looking at the throat. But those who have a cough and runny nose are more likely to be suffering from a viral infection.

    Doctors occasionally swab the patient's throat and perform tests to identify streptococcus bacteria since it is frequently regarded as necessary to diagnose strep throat (which is typically treated with antibiotics). The majority of adults are typically only tested if they meet strict criteria, such as having tonsil exudates, swollen and painful lymph nodes in the neck, fever, and the absence of cough. On the timing of testing or even the administration of antibiotics, experts may not always agree.


    Throat Infection Treatment

    Throat Infection Treatment

    When someone has a throat infection, oral analgesics such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can frequently help lessen their pain. Although frequently advised, gargling with warm salt water has not been proven to be beneficial. If symptoms are severe, some doctors may additionally administer a single dosage of the corticosteroid dexamethasone; this medication may reduce the length of time that patients have symptoms. It might also decrease the airway obstruction produced by mononucleosis. A common antibiotic prescribed for strep infections is penicillin or amoxicillin. Clindamycin can be administered to people who have a penicillin allergy.

    Individuals who get recurrent streptococcal infections of their tonsils may require to have them removed (a procedure known as a tonsillectomy). Children who have had more than 6 infections in a year, more than 4 infections in each of the previous two years, or more than 3 infections per year for the last three years are often those who need a tonsillectomy. Children who have acute infections that are severe and persistent despite antibiotic treatment, those who have significant blockage (including obstructive sleep problems), those who have recurrent peritonsillar abscesses, and those who have cancer are all candidates for tonsillectomy, according to specialists.

    These particular criteria are not used by doctors when deciding when to perform a tonsillectomy on adults. Adults with severe bad breath induced by tonsillar stones, however, may have tonsillectomy surgery. Doctors do take into account individual variations when deciding whether to suggest a tonsillectomy for both children and adults. There are many effective tonsillectomy methods. The tonsils can be removed by doctors using a knife, an electrocautery instrument, or radio waves.

    When tonsillitis results in some throat obstruction, a partial tonsillectomy may be performed on the patient. By shaving the tonsil with specialized scissors or by utilizing other tools like a laser, radiofrequency, or electrocautery, part of the swollen tonsil can be removed. To clear up airway congestion that is causing snoring and sleep disruption, it is just as effective as a total tonsillectomy. Tonsils typically do not regenerate.


    Ear Infections

    Ear Infections

    There are three components to the ear. You can see the outer ear and the canal that connects to the eardrum. The eardrum separates the middle ear from the outer ear, which has microscopic bones that transmit sound. Sounds are converted into electrical impulses in the inner ear, which then transmit these signals to the brain. Bacteria, fungi, or viruses can invade any of these three components. Middle ear infections (otitis media) are particularly common in children. At least once, four out of every five kids will reportedly get a middle ear infection.


    Ear Infection Symptoms

    Depending on the type, ear infections can cause the following symptoms:

    • Earaches 
    • Mild hearing loss or the perception of muffled sound
    • Ear discharge
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Reduced appetite
    • Irritation in the outer ear
    • Blisters along the ear canal or on the outer ear
    • Ear noises, such as humming or buzzing
    • Vertigo (loss of balance).


    Ear Infection Causes

    The following are only a few of the numerous ear infection causes and risk factors:

    • Infections of the upper respiratory tract
    • Rapid fluctuations in air pressure, such as those that occur during travel
    • Eustachian tubes that are smaller than usual or are plugged
    • Cleft palate
    • Young age. Ear infections are more common in infants and young children.
    • Diving in contaminated water
    • Not adequately drying the outer ear after swimming or bathing
    • Excessive ear cleaning might harm the soft tissues by scratching them.


    Ear Infection Types

    Physical examination and laboratory investigation of pus or discharge are used to diagnose ear infections. CT scans might also be done in specific circumstances. The following types of ear infections:

    • Otitis externa 
    • Chronic or acute otitis media
    • Infectious myringitis
    • Mastoiditis
    • Vestibular neuritis 
    • Herpes zoster infection


    1. Otitis externa

    Otitis externa

    An infection or inflammation of the ear canal between the eardrum and the outer ear is known as otitis externa. It may be brought on by contact with contaminated water or mechanical injury from excessive cleaning. Bacteria or fungi may be the infecting agent. Options for treatment include:

    • Professional ear canal cleaning, while it's generally best to avoid syringing the ear
    • Eardrops with steroids and antibiotics, if the illness is bacterial.
    • Oral antibacterial
    • Ear drops with steroids and antifungal drugs if the illness is fungal.
    • Medication for reducing pain
    • Keeping dry ears.


    1. Otitis media

    Otitis media

    Otitis media is a middle ear infection that can either be acute or chronic. Acute otitis media most frequently affects children because colds and clogged Eustachian tubes, both common childhood illnesses, are the two main contributing factors. The infectious agent may be bacterial or viral, although research indicates that viruses account for the majority of infections. Sometimes the eardrum will rupture, causing pus to accumulate in the ear canal, but most of the time the eardrum will naturally heal. Options for treatment include:

    • Medication for reducing pain
    • Antibiotics if the illness is bacterial
    • Eardrops if there is mucus in the ear canal.

    Chronic otitis media can develop as a result of recurrent acute otitis media attacks or one protracted episode. Without medical attention, the chronic infection may rupture the eardrum or harm the sensitive middle ear structures. Meningitis, infection of the equilibrium organs within the ear (labyrinthitis), sensorineural hearing loss (permanent hearing loss), and facial paralysis are additional potential complications of untreated chronic otitis media. Options for treatment include:

    • Applying topical antibiotic drops (with or without steroids) and careful cleansing of the ear
    • Drugs to fight the infection
    • Surgical eardrum perforation repair
    • Preventive measures to lower the risk of contracting another infection


    1. Infectious myringitis

    An infection from either bacteria or viruses can result in infectious myringitis, an inflammation of the eardrum. Inflammation causes the eardrum to respond by developing tiny blisters. It may hurt quite a bit. If there is a fever, bacteria are almost probably the cause of the infection. Options for treatment include:

    • Antibiotics
    • Medication for reducing pain
    • Professional removal of the blisters


    1. Acute mastoiditis

    The mastoid is the name of the bone that is directly behind the ear. This bone infection, acute mastoiditis, is caused by a previous acute otitis media. Reddened and swollen skin above the mastoid, fever, ear discharge, and severe discomfort are some of the symptoms. This condition is really serious. Acute mastoiditis if untreated can result in hearing loss, blood poisoning, meningitis, and facial paralysis. Options for treatment include:

    • Intravenous antibacterial.
    • Surgery to drain the infection from the bone.


    1. Vestibular neuritis

    The vestibular system, which makes up the inner ear, houses the balance organs. It has three fluid-filled loops (semi-circular canals) that move in response to the head's movement. The utricle and saccule, which perceive gravity and back-and-forth movement, are located close to the semicircular canals. These organs send signals as the head moves, and the vestibular nerve carries those signals to the brain, where they are analyzed.

    A viral infection is most likely to blame for vestibular neuritis, an inflammation of the vestibular nerve. The primary symptom is sudden, severe vertigo; nausea and vomiting may also occur. Additionally, the eyes may involuntarily flicker in the direction of the head's affected side. Options for treating vestibular neuritis include:

    • Prescription drugs, such as antihistamines
    • Medications for nausea
    • Physiotherapy for the vestibular system to assist in compensating or retraining the brain.


    1. Ear herpes zoster

    The cochlear nerve transmits sound as electrical impulses to the brain. The herpes zoster virus infects the auditory nerve in cases of herpes zoster of the ear. Small blisters on the outer ear, ear canal, and even on the face and neck are among the symptoms, along with vertigo and ear pain. Additionally, an infection of the main nerve that supplies the face muscles might result in swelling and partial paralysis. Options for treatment include:

    • Antiviral drugs like acyclovir and steroids.
    • Medication for reducing pain.


    Nasal Infections

    Nasal Infections

    More than 16 million outpatient visits and many hours of wasted time are attributed to the 31 million Americans who suffer from chronic sinusitis each year. In the past, sinus surgery was invasive, frequently carried out through external incisions, and painful. The endoscopic techniques for nasal and sinus diseases now are less invasive, less uncomfortable, and produce excellent results. And the patients are aware of the care for them.


    Nasal Infection Types

    The broad range of sinus and nasal conditions includes:

    • Allergic rhinitis
    • Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leakage
    • Nasal polyps are a common side effect of chronic sinusitis, which is an infection of the sinuses that lasts longer than 12 weeks.
    • Chronic sinusitis without polyps
    • Challenging infections
    • Deviated septum
    • Acute or chronic invasive fungal sinusitis, fungal ball, allergic fungal sinusitis, and other types of fungal sinusitis.
    • Inverting papilloma (benign masses that form inside the nose)
    • Meningoencephalocele is when the cover of the brain and spinal cord protrudes through an opening in the skull
    • Fractured nose
    • Nasal tumors and mass conditions
    • Nosebleeds
    • Asthma, aspirin sensitivity, and nasal polyps are the three disorders that make up the clinical syndrome known as triad asthma.


    Nasal Infection Diagnosis

    Doctors carefully listen to you to correctly diagnose your problem. They evaluate your prior records and build a detailed patient history. After that, doctors conduct a thorough head and neck physical examination, which includes inspecting your nasal cavity using a nasal endoscope. If required, physicians can use the endoscope in the office to biopsy a polyp or lump. To examine your nose, sinuses, and larynx, they also employ an endoscope. If a CT scan is required to diagnose sinus disease, they may also do that. Doctors have the tools necessary to obtain a sinus culture without causing you any pain if they suspect you have a bacterial infection. This makes it possible for them to find and identify the bacteria in the laboratory and test them to find the most effective antibiotics to treat you. There is no need to hypothesize about which antibiotics would be effective.


    Nasal Infection Treatment

    Nasal Infection Treatment

    Doctors treat complex medical and surgical concerns in patients with sinus illnesses using image-guided, minimally invasive surgery. This includes revision surgery, which indicates that the patient had a prior operation but that either the polyps recovered, there was excessive scar tissue, or the wound didn't heal properly. To make it right, hospitals provide a skilled group of surgeons and specialists. A tiny balloon is endoscopically inflated in the sinus cavity to release blocked sinuses, which restores normal drainage, and the balloon is then removed. This procedure is often provided by healthcare facilities. Additionally, many hospitals have state-of-the-art surgical and medical methods to stop the growth of polyps in people who have them. You should pick a facility that performs a lot of procedures if you need surgical intervention for any kind of medical problem.


    The ear, nose, and throat can be impacted by a wide range of problems and illnesses. Since the areas are connected, a failure in one area of the system could result in symptoms in another area. ENT issues are frequently treated by general practitioners. However, a physician can suggest a patient seek treatment from an otolaryngologist, who has specific training, equipment, and experience in treating ENT issues, for more complex diseases or a precise diagnosis.