Last updated date: 02-Jun-2023

    Originally Written in English




    Although paranoia is the most prevalent sign of psychosis, it is widespread in the general population. Paranoia is the belief that you are being threatened in some way, even if there is no evidence, or very little evidence, to support this belief. Delusions are another term for paranoid ideas. There are several types of threats that you may be concerned about.

    Exaggerated suspicions might also be the source of paranoid thinking. For example, someone made a derogatory remark about you once, and you suspect that they are waging a hate campaign against you.


    Paranoia definition

    Paranoia definition

    The unreasonable and persistent belief that people are 'out to get you' or that you are the focus of constant, invasive scrutiny from others is referred to as paranoia. This irrational distrust of others can make it difficult for a person suffering from paranoia to operate socially or maintain intimate relationships.

    Paranoia can be a sign of several disorders, including paranoid personality disorder, delusional (paranoid) disorder, and schizophrenia.

    Paranoia, on the other hand, can be persistent, exceedingly unpleasant, and even deadly in those suffering from mental diseases such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and paranoid personality disorder.

    A persecutory belief is considered to be the central defining feature of paranoia and includes two essential elements:

    1. A belief that harm will occur, and 
    2. An assumption that others seek to cause harm. Such persecutory notions can be encountered with varied degrees of frequency and embraced with varying degrees of intensity among the general population.

    Paranoia can range from minor concerns about the motives of others to views that are so implausible and rigid that they are recognized as a mental illness, most notably as a paranoid delusion. One of the underlying assumptions regarding paranoia is that it is characterized by an excessive or incorrect attribution of ill intent to others.

    However, given the spectrum of paranoia, paranoid explanations can and should be true at times, albeit these are likely to become progressively wrong as paranoia becomes more debilitating and a focus of clinical attention.

    Epidemiological studies reveal that paranoia has full taxometric continuity across the population, showing that category differences employed in psychiatric diagnosis do not represent a clear point of change in severity in the community. Nonetheless, the population's continuous distribution does not always indicate that the underlying causes are totally continuous among individuals, through time, or between sub-groups.

    The majority of recent research has focused on paranoia in the context of mental health, often in persons who do not have an independently diagnosable neurological condition, and has discovered a variety of risk factors and cognitive processes that encourage paranoid thinking. Indeed, living in places with little social cohesiveness, concern, sleep deprivation, victimization, and early childhood adversity, abuse, and trauma have all been linked to paranoia.

    Paranoia has also been linked to basic cognitive errors in causal and probabilistic reasoning, as well as belief flexibility. Diagnosable paranoid states, on the other hand, can be generated by a wide range of direct disruptions in brain activity. Paranoia is prevalent in psychosis as a result of epilepsy, brain damage, or dementia. It is also one of the most common unpleasant side effects for a variety of recreational substances. Indeed, in terms of the reasons and circumstances in which it manifests, paranoia is arguably most notable for being linked to such a diverse spectrum of issues, impairments, and pressures.



    Social and environmental

    Discrimination has also been linked to a higher risk of paranoid delusions. According to such research, paranoia appeared to be more prevalent in elderly patients who had encountered higher levels of prejudice throughout their life. Furthermore, it has been shown that immigrants are predisposed to various kinds of psychosis. This might be owing to the consequences of discriminatory incidents and humiliation discussed above. 




    Many more mood-based symptoms, grandiosity and guilt, may underlie functional paranoia. 

    Paranoid cognition is defined by Colby (1981) as persecutory delusions and false beliefs whose propositional content revolves around ideas of being harassed, threatened, harmed, subjugated, persecuted, accused, mistreated, wronged, tormented, disparaged, vilified, and so on, by malevolent others, either specific individuals or groups.

    Three components of paranoid cognition have been identified by Robins & Post: 

    • suspicions without sufficient basis that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them;
    • preoccupation with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trust worthiness of friends or associates;
    • reluctance to confide in others due to unjustified fear that the information will be used maliciously against them.

    Clinical psychology has almost entirely characterized paranoid cognition in terms of psychodynamic notions and dispositional factors. Paranoid cognition, in this perspective, is a sign of an intra-psychic conflict or disturbance. For example, Colby (1981) proposed that the biases of blaming others for one's difficulties serve to lessen the anguish caused by the sense of being embarrassed, as well as to refute the notion that one's own inadequacy is to blame.

    This intra-psychic approach stresses that the origin of paranoid cognitions is within the people's heads (social perceiver), and dismisses the possibility that paranoid cognitions are connected to the social environment in which such cognitions are entrenched. This fact is crucial because, while studying the origins of distrust and suspicion (two components of paranoid cognition), many scholars have emphasized the relevance of social contact, particularly when social interaction has gone wrong. Furthermore, a model of trust development shown that trust grows or declines as a function of the accumulated history of contact between two or more people.

    Another significant distinction may be made between "pathological and non-pathological kinds of trust and mistrust." The major distinction, according to Deutsch, is that non-pathological forms are adaptable and sensitive to changing conditions. Pathological forms reveal excessive perceptual biases and judgemental predispositions that can originate and sustain them, comparable to a self-fulfilling prophecy.

    It has been proposed that there is a "ladder" of paranoid, ranging from minor social evaluative worries to persecutory views about mild, moderate, and severe dangers. 



    Another significant distinction may be made between "pathological and non-pathological kinds of trust and mistrust." The major distinction, according to Deutsch, is that non-pathological forms are adaptable and sensitive to changing conditions. Pathological forms reveal excessive perceptual biases and judgemental predispositions that can originate and sustain them, comparable to a self-fulfilling prophecy.

    It has been proposed that there is a "ladder" of paranoid, ranging from minor social evaluative worries to persecutory views about mild, moderate, and severe dangers.


    What is a Delusion?

    Delusion Definition

    A delusion is a strange notion that a person maintains is true despite evidence to the contrary. Cultural views that appear strange but are commonly accepted do not meet the definition of a delusion. Delusions of grandeur and persecutory delusions are two of the most prevalent forms of delusions.


    Is paranoia a mental health problem?

    mental health problem

    Paranoia is a symptom of several mental health issues, but it is not a diagnosis in and of itself.

    Paranoid thoughts can range from extremely mild to quite severe, and each person's experience will be unique. This is determined by how much:

    • you believe the paranoid thoughts
    • you think about the paranoid thoughts
    • the paranoid thoughts upset you
    • the paranoid thoughts interfere with your everyday life

    Mild paranoia affects many individuals at some time in their life — perhaps up to one-third of us. This is referred to as non-clinical paranoia. These kinds of paranoid ideas frequently alter with time, so you may realize that they are not warranted or just cease experiencing them.

    Extreme paranoia is at the other extreme of the range (also called clinical paranoia or persecutory delusions). If your paranoia is serious, you will most likely require therapy.


    Paranoia can be one symptom of these mental health problems:

    • paranoid schizophrenia – a type of schizophrenia where you experience extreme paranoid thoughts
    • delusional disorder (persecutory type) – a type of psychosis where you have one main delusion related to being harmed by others
    • paranoid personality disorder


    Paranoia Symptoms 

    Paranoia Symptoms 

    Paranoid symptoms may range from mild to severe. They depend on the cause but, generally, a person who is paranoid may: 

    • Be easily offended
    • Find it difficult to trust others
    • Not cope with any type of criticism
    • Assign harmful meanings to other people’s remarks
    • Be always on the defensive
    • Be hostile, aggressive and argumentative
    • Not be able to compromise
    • Find it difficult, if not impossible, to ‘forgive and forget’
    • Assume that people are talking ill of them behind their back
    • Be overly suspicious – for example, think that other people are lying or scheming to cheat them
    • Not be able to confide in anyone
    • Find relationships difficult 
    • Consider the world to be a place of constant threat
    • Feel persecuted by the world at large
    • Believe in unfounded ‘conspiracy theories’.


    Paranoia types

    Research has shown that mild paranoid thoughts are fairly common in the general population.

    However, paranoia can be caused by a mental health disorder including:

    Paranoid personality disorder

    A personality disorder is characterized by a lengthy history of dysfunctional ideas, feelings, and behavior. People with paranoid personality disorder are prone to believing that others will harm, mislead, or take advantage of them. They may look secretive, combative, or chilly, and they may be difficult to work with. This condition is unusual and normally improves with age, with many patients recovering by their forties or fifties.


    Delusional disorder

    People suffering from a delusional disorder have one delusion (a fixed, erroneous belief) and no other indications of mental disease. The most prevalent are paranoid delusions, which make people believe there is a conspiracy or that they will be harmed. However, persons suffering from a delusional condition may also have other forms of strange beliefs.

    If you know someone who suffers from paranoia, it's crucial not to tell them they're hallucinating or that they're insane. They are well aware of their paranoid ideas. Understanding and support are the most effective ways to persuade people to seek expert assistance.


    Paranoid schizophrenia

    Schizophrenia is a kind of psychosis in which people have difficulty comprehending reality. The major symptoms are hallucinations and delusions (hearing voices that aren't there). Some persons suffering from schizophrenia experience odd delusions, such as believing that their thoughts are being broadcast on the radio or that they are being persecuted by the government. Other symptoms include foggy thinking and a lack of drive for daily duties.


    Mood disorders

    Psychotic disorder and bipolar disorder can cause paranoia.


    Other causes of paranoia include:

    • Recreational drug use: Cannabis and amphetamine usage frequently create paranoid delusions and may precipitate a psychotic episode. Other substances, such as alcohol, cocaine, and ecstasy, can create paranoia while intoxicated or during withdrawal.
    • Paranoia can be caused by neurological diseases such as dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, or brain damage.
    • Significant trauma and stress: According to certain research, those who have endured severe and chronic stress are more likely to develop paranoia. This might involve childhood maltreatment, interpersonal violence, racial persecution, or living alone.



    Attempts to address why some people are more paranoid than others have traditionally relied on proximate level explanations such as heredity, life history, or cognitive biases. Nonetheless, these techniques do not address the question of why individuals have a cognitive capacity for paranoid thinking and if between-individual variance in paranoid thinking can be selectively beneficial in terms of fitness in particular situations.

    A scared reaction to danger, whether actual or hypothetical, is likely to provide large fitness benefits and has been subjected to strong selection in many species. Nonetheless, not all individuals respond in the same magnitude to the same dangerous stimuli or context: degrees of fearfulness vary significantly between individuals, even within a species. The subject of how stable, between-individual variations in scared reactions may develop and be maintained by selection falls within the umbrella of research on the evolution of stable behavioral types.

    The development of behavioral types is caused by trade-offs in the pursuit of various fitness-relevant activities. For example, investing in growth (e.g., foraging) frequently comes with an increased danger of predation, therefore tactics targeted at enhancing growth are likely to be traded-off against strategies aimed at reducing predation risk.

    Organisms must therefore weigh the benefits of growth investment against the increased mortality risk; the optimal resolution of such trade-offs in different environments or for different individuals can thus select for variation in fearfulness, aggression, risk appetite, and so on, which broadly dictate individual life history strategies and associated behavior.

    In the DSM-IV-TR, paranoia is diagnosed in the form of: 

    • Paranoid personality disorder
    • Paranoid schizophrenia (a subtype of schizophrenia) 
    • The persecutory type of delusional disorder, which is also called "querulous paranoia" when the focus is to remedy some injustice by legal action.

    P. J. McKenna, a clinical psychologist, believes that "As a word, paranoia refers to an illness that has been debated in and out of existence, and whose clinical characteristics, course, borders, and almost every other component are all debatable. When used as an adjective, paranoid has come to refer to a wide range of symptoms, from paranoid schizophrenia to paranoid depression to paranoid personality—not to mention a slew of paranoid 'psychoses,"reactions,' and'states'—and this is to limit discussion to functional diseases. Even when reduced to the prefix para-, the name reappears, generating consternation as the problematic but tenacious idea of paraphrenia "

    Delusions of reference and delusions of persecution affect at least half of all diagnosed cases of schizophrenia. Although paranoid beliefs and behavior are present in many mental diseases, including depression and dementia, they are more common in three mental disorders: paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder (persecutory type), and paranoid personality disorder.



    Because paranoia is a serious indicator of mental illness, it is critical to contact a doctor as soon as possible if you have had substantial paranoid symptoms, especially if they have lasted several days and you are beginning to believe that people are conspiring against you.

    The intensity of the symptoms as well as the underlying reason influence treatment for paranoid. Medication, psychotherapy, or a mix of the two may be recommended by your doctor or psychiatrist.

    Medication Antipsychotic medication may be administered, especially if you have a mental disease such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and anti-anxiety medicines may also be used to treat your symptoms.


    Psychotherapy can assist persons suffering from paranoid improve their coping and communication abilities. There may be attempts to assist someone suffering from paranoid in "reality testing" portions of their views. Furthermore, persons suffering with paranoid may be able to learn to trust others more, to control and express their emotions in more appropriate ways, and to boost their self-esteem and confidence via treatment.


    If you're having paranoia, it's critical that you talk to your doctor or psychiatrist about it. If you already have bipolar disorder or another mental health problem, the onset of paranoid delusional thinking may indicate that your therapy or drugs need to be changed.

    It is critical that you notify your mental health care team if you are experiencing these symptoms so that they can assist keep you safe and ensure you receive the appropriate therapy.


    When should I see my doctor?

    Because paranoia can be a symptom of a mental health problem or a brain damage, it is critical to consult a doctor if you or someone you know is experiencing it.

    If you or someone you love experiences frequent paranoid thoughts and sensations that are causing you or them discomfort, it is critical that you get professional treatment. If you are concerned about someone else's paranoia, avoid criticizing them or telling them they are hallucinating. Their ideas are real to them, and they require assistance.


    Paranoia and Stigma

    There are many misconceptions regarding what it means to be paranoid. It's critical to realize that you're not alone and that you don't have to put up with someone mistreating you. Here are some ideas for you to consider:

    • Show individuals this information to help them understand paranoia better.
    • Talk to other individuals who suffer from paranoia by attending a peer support group – or starting one yourself.
    • Share your knowledge with others. Mind provides blogs and video blogs from people who have dealt with mental health issues such as paranoia. See our pages of mental health tales for more information, including how to share your experience through a blog or vlog.
    • Understand your legal rights. More information may be found on our legal rights sections.
    • Use your Mind to take action. See our campaigning website for more information on the various ways you can help us fight stigma.



    Not only are paranoid symptoms upsetting, but they may substantially impair your activities at home, work, or school, as well as have a detrimental influence on your social life and relationships.

    It may take some time to find the most efficient way to manage your symptoms, but don't give up. There are tools and assistance available to assist you in learning to manage with paranoid thinking and other elements of life with bipolar disorder or any mental illness.