Last updated date: 13-Mar-2023

Originally Written in English



Polypectomy is a surgical procedure done to remove polyps. Small, finger-like growths called polyps can develop on the cervix (cervical polyps) or the uterine lining (endometrial or uterine polyps). These polyps are typically benign or noncancerous. The symptoms of polyps, such as heavy or unusual menstrual flow, can be relieved with a polypectomy. Through hysteroscopy, a minimally invasive procedure used to examine the cervix or uterus, polyps are often easily removed. The process, often referred to as a hysteroscopic polypectomy, makes use of a tiny, thin scope with integrated light and a camera. To check for polyps, the scope is introduced through the vagina into the uterine cavity or cervical canal. If a polyp is discovered, it can be cut out using surgical tools that are likewise connected to the scope. All polyps should be removed and then microscopically checked for signs of malignancy.


Does Polyps Cause Symptoms

Polyps symptoms

Given what a polypectomy is now, it's important to talk about how doctors might be made aware that they need one in the first place. The strange thing about polyps is that most of the time, they exhibit no symptoms at all. That's not always the case, of course. Women who have uterine polyps may notice any of the following symptoms:

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Spotting or irregular bleeding
  • Polyp bulging from the uterus, or prolapse

When uterine polyps are found on an ultrasound, the doctor may recommend having a hysteroscopic polypectomy to remove them. The doctor will place a hysteroscope (a long, thin tube with a camera) through the vagina, via the cervix, and directly into the uterus to see the uterus. To remove the polyps, the appropriate tools for uterine polypectomy will next be placed through this channel. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is not painful as a procedure, however, the patient may suffer some discomfort as a result of having a tube placed during the entire uterine polyp removal process.


Polypectomy Benefits

Polypectomy Benefits

  • It is carried done in an outpatient environment while receiving local anesthesia.
  • It prevents the need for general anesthesia (being put to sleep) and concomitant nausea and tiredness.
  • The process is visible to you as it is carried out.
  • Before the operation, you can eat and drink normally.
  • There are no cuts or obvious scars.
  • The entire process takes around 15 to 20 minutes.
  • Most women can leave the hospital between 20 minutes and 2 hours after the procedure, and recovery is fast.
  • Within 1 to 2 days after the treatment, normal activities can be quickly resumed.
  • There are no hormones involved.
  • As opposed to a general anesthesia operation, fewer hospital visits are required.


Polypectomy Cervical

Your OB/GYN doctor will perform a straightforward office surgery called a cervical polypectomy to remove polyps, or tiny noncancerous growths, from the cervix. This technique is low-risk and minimally invasive, and in some cases, it can be done without an anesthetic.


When is Cervical Polypectomy Performed

If your OB/GYN doctor discovers polyps in your cervical region, a cervical polypectomy is conducted. Usually, these growths are found by another examination, such as a Pap smear. Up to 99% of cervical polyps are benign, which means they are neither precancerous nor cancerous. However, it is typically advised to have them removed because there is a slight chance that a cervical polyp could be malignant or precancerous.


Polypectomy in Uterus

This short treatment is done using local anesthesia. The polyp is subsequently removed by inserting a small telescope (hysteroscope) via the vagina into the uterus (womb). Depending on the size of the polyp, the surgery typically takes between 15 and 20 minutes. It is performed at the outpatient hysteroscopy department without any cuts. You will receive a local anesthetic, so you will be awake throughout.


When is Uterine Polypectomy Performed?

The following may be linked to polyps and indications for polypectomy:

  • Heavy periods.
  • Period irregularities.
  • Protracted periods.
  • Bleeding outside of your menstrual cycle.
  • Vaginal bleeding following menopause.

Additionally, doctors remove polyps to check for malignancy or pre-cancer.


Polypectomy Preparation

Polypectomy Preparation

Polypectomy is, in a sense, a gynecologic procedure, so it must be carried out under general anesthesia in the operating room. But there's no need to worry about the uterine polyp removal experience since it only takes a few minutes and the patient can return home the same day. However, some preliminary tasks must be followed.

Before the procedure, the patient must fast for at least 6 hours and maybe up to 12 hours if general anesthesia is being used. Water and prescribed medications are acceptable as long as you have discussed them with your doctor beforehand. To administer a suitable and secure amount of anesthetic, you might anticipate discussions with an anesthesiologist. It's also simple to forget that you'll need to arrange your return trip after the treatment. Although you'll be able to leave that day, you'll surely need someone else to drive you due to the general anesthesia's residual effects.

Experts recommended that you should talk to your doctor about the medications you are taking. This is because some medications, which should be avoided both before and after the polypectomy at least temporarily, might cause blood thinning. Think of drugs like naproxen, ibuprofen, aspirin, warfarin, and clopidogrel as an illustration, as well as vitamins and supplements like ginkgo Biloba, vitamin E, ginger, and garlic. However, your doctor may prescribe specific antibiotics and painkillers that are safe to use and may both treat your pain and prevent infection.

Before a polypectomy, blood tests are frequently performed merely to be cautious and make sure you're healthy enough for the treatment. Perhaps more ultrasounds and imaging testing are required.

Smokers must give up their nicotine habit before the hysteroscopic polypectomy to make their experience safe and reduce any potential risks. This also applies to marijuana. Smoking of any kind might have negative effects and make this treatment more difficult. The best course of action would essentially be to abstain from smoking for 4 weeks before and 4-6 weeks following the polypectomy.

It's also crucial to let the doctor know when you last had a period because hysteroscopic polypectomy is best performed right after a period but before ovulation. This might happen anywhere from a day to ten days after the last menstrual period.

However, the patient may need to stay in the hospital for an additional one to two days if the procedure becomes more complicated. Most crucial, let your doctor know right away if you experience nausea or chills after the surgery. After the polyp is removed, a lab test will determine if it is malignant or benign.


Cervical Polypectomy Procedure

Cervical Polypectomy Procedure

Similar to a traditional Pap smear, a speculum is used during a cervical polypectomy to access the cervix. Whether or not a polyp has a stalk affects how it is removed in a significant way. Using forceps, your OB/GYN doctor will carefully twist the polyp from its base and detach it from the cervix to more easily remove stalked polyps. Polyps with a wider base or those without a stalk are typically removed while under local anesthetic. Your OB/GYN doctor will use a hot wire loop to burn the polyp and extract it from the cervix to eliminate these polyps. Any polyps that are excised are then sent to a laboratory to see if the cells are malignant or precancerous.

The removal of cervical polyps shouldn't hurt. During and after the surgery, you could experience dull discomfort or cramps. You can go home the same day as the treatment and it can be finished rather quickly.


Recovery After Cervical Polypectomy

You can have cramping or pain comparable to menstrual cramps after your cervical polypectomy. You can stay comfortable by taking over-the-counter painkillers if necessary. Although some light bleeding or watery discharge following the operation is typical, you should avoid tampons until your next menstruation and adhere to sanitary pads. Most cervical polypectomies result in discharge or light bleeding that lasts approximately a week, while excision of bigger polyps may cause light bleeding that lasts up to about four weeks. Avoid sexual activity until any bleeding or discharge has stopped.

Your OB/GYN doctor will go over what to expect during your appointment. Most individuals feel comfortable returning to their regular routines the day after their cervical polypectomy.


Hysteroscopic Polypectomy

Hysteroscopic Polypectomy

As usual, you can eat and drink before the surgery. You will receive a time for your appointment at the gynecologic endoscopy unit.

If you are of childbearing age, provide an early morning urine sample in a sterile container. This is because doctors frequently perform a pregnancy test before the surgery.

Before the treatment, the doctor will meet with you to review your consent paperwork and address any questions you may have. You are suggested to take 1000 mg of paracetamol or 400 mg of ibuprofen (if you are not sensitive to these drugs) about an hour before the scheduled visit to help alleviate the pain. Bring a sanitary cloth to use after your period.

You will be accompanied to the clinic by a nurse, where you will be requested to take off your underwear and put on a gown. A sheet will cover you as you sit on a gynecological couch with supports for your legs.

In the clinic, there are often two nurses on shift. Other medical professionals or students may occasionally be present. The doctor will do the procedure, and a nurse will be by you throughout the procedure. It is only 15 to 20 minutes. You can watch the procedure on TV if you choose to do so.

After that, you will be led to a recovery area where you will be given a drink and additional painkillers if you require them. When you're ready to leave the hospital, which is normally after 20 minutes, let the nursing staff know; however, some patients might need a little more time. Experts advise against you taking your vehicle home.


Polypectomy Recovery

Polypectomy Recovery

After polypectomy, it's usual to have tenderness and pain. In addition to the safe pain medications, the doctor may prescribe, applying a warm compress might also be beneficial. Additionally, some women bleed a little bit right after the treatment and continue to bleed for up to two weeks afterward. The menstrual cycle, however, ought to be perfectly normal. Even if you normally use tampons, consider switching to pads for your subsequent period, especially if it arrives two weeks following your polypectomy.

Avoid any physically demanding activities, including sexual activity, until you have fully recovered. Although recovery time following polypectomy varies by patient, it usually lasts between two and four weeks.

A week or so after the surgery is the optimal time to see the doctor for a checkup. During this follow-up, the doctor will assess your level of recovery and may go over the polyp lab results.

The doctor needs to maintain track of your symptoms; thus, follow-up consultations are essential. All of the unpleasant symptoms should go away when the polyp is removed, but occasionally there may be issues that require immediate attention, like unusual bleeding or persistent pain. Additionally, it's sad that polyps can regrow even after removal. Another polypectomy may be necessary in this case, as well as other possible therapies including taking a progestin medication, having an IUD, or undergoing endometrial ablation.

There's no need to beat yourself up if you end up with uterine polyps because they can't be prevented. Although several factors, including as high blood pressure, obesity, and tamoxifen usage, may raise the chance of their development, the exact reason why polyps arise is yet unknown. It is essential to get regular OBGYN checkups for this reason. If you have any worries regarding your reproductive health, don't hesitate to contact your doctor.


Polypectomy Risks

Polypectomy Risks

There are hazards involved with the surgery, just like with other medical operations. The following risks and side effects need to be considered:

  • Any discomfort or cramps during the treatment.
  • Feeling ill, lightheaded, or dizzy.
  • Spotting or bleeding following the surgery in the vagina.
  • A bladder infection that causes symptoms of cystitis, or an infection of the womb, which causes vaginal discharge and pain. Typically, antibiotic therapy is required.
  • Either failing to enter the uterus to remove the polyp or failing to remove the polyp once inside.
  • Making a tiny breach in the womb's wall. Perforation is the term for this.
  • Rarely, damage to the womb's surrounding organs may necessitate additional surgery, such as a laparotomy or a laparoscopy.



Uterine polyps are surgically removed during a polypectomy surgery. These are an expansion of non-cancerous cells in the uterine lining or inner wall. It is a common practice that not only gets rid of polyps and their symptoms but also checks for cancer.