Last updated date: 20-Aug-2023

    Originally Written in English



    Presbyopia refers to the steady loss of the capacity of the eyes to concentrate on adjacent things. It's a normal, albeit an inconvenient, process of growing older. Presbyopia commonly appears during the early stages to mid-40s and worsens gradually till you reach the age of 65. 

    You are likely to notice that you have presbyopia when you have to hold a book, newspaper, or phone at arm's length to read them. The ophthalmologist can verify presbyopia with a simple eye examination. He or she can also recommend eyeglasses or contact lenses to correct the problem. You may also want to consider a surgical procedure. 


    Signs and Symptoms of Presbyopia 

    Most people experience the first signs and symptoms of presbyopia around the age of 40. The signs and symptoms of presbyopia usually include a gradual loss of ability to read or accomplish work up close. 

    The following are some of the most common signs and symptoms associated with presbyopia:

    • After reading or doing close work, you may experience eye strain or even headaches. 
    • Being unable to read the small print
    • Fatigued as a result of conducting close work
    • The need for bright light while reading or conducting close work
    • To focus appropriately on reading content, you must hold it at arm's length 
    • General issues focusing on and perceiving objects that are closer by
    • Squinting 


    Causes of Presbyopia 

    The lens in the eye is relatively flexible and elastic while you are still young. With the assistance of a ring of small muscles surrounding it, it can modify its length or form. Your eye's nearby muscles can reshape and make the lens contain close and distant views. 

    As you become older, your lens tends to lose its flexibility and stiffens. Due to this, your lens loses its ability to alter the form and even constricts, making it difficult to concentrate on nearby objects. Your eye eventually loses its capacity to focus light straight onto the retina as your lens hardens. 


    Risk Factors of Presbyopia 

    Basically, age is the most common cause of presbyopia. However, certain medicines and diseases can lead to presbyopia among individuals under the age of 40. Premature presbyopia is the term for such a condition.  

    At times, you may not have reached the age of 40 but are having trouble focusing on items up close. You might have an underlying ocular or medical problem in such cases and should see a doctor right away. 

    Some of the risk factors associated with premature presbyopia are; 

    • Farsightedness (a condition in which the nearby objects are blurry)
    • Medications. Allergy drugs, antianxiety medicines, attention-deficit meds, antidepressants, antispasmodics, antipsychotics, and diuretics are among the medicines that can raise your risk.
    • Health conditions. Diabetes, dysautonomia, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions raise your chances of getting presbyopia earlier. 
    • Head trauma history.


    Presbyopia Diagnosis

    Presbyopia Diagnosis 

    A comprehensive eye examination might help your eye doctor to diagnose presbyopia. This exam will include a refraction assessment to determine how well you view items at different distances. Your provider will be able to detect whether you have presbyopia or astigmatism, as well as if you are farsighted or nearsighted. This is based on the results of the refraction test.  

    To better view the inside portions of the eyes, your ophthalmologist may widen your eyes using specific eye drops. Although the drops are typically painless, you might be light-sensitive for about two to three hours after that. 

    Your eye doctor will give you some disposable plastic sunglasses to wear if you do not have any. If possible, go with a family member or a friend to take you home if you cannot do so right after the examination. 

    If you are over 40 and don't have any indications of eye illness, you should have your eyes examined at least every two or four years. While you get older, your presbyopia slowly worsens. Hence, you might wish to schedule more eye exam visits as you hit your milestone age.  

    By the time you hit the age of 65, you should be having annual eye examinations. You should also undergo a yearly eye checkup despite your age if you have a family background of eye illness, diabetes, or other associated conditions. 


    Presbyopia Treatment 

    There is no cure for presbyopia. There are, however, a number of presbyopia treatment options available to help you repair your vision. Your ophthalmologist can recommend any of the following options, based on your health state and lifestyle; 


    Presbyopia can be addressed with eyeglasses, which is a safe and straightforward technique to correct vision impairments. If you had normal, uncorrected eye vision before presbyopia diagnosis, you might use nonprescription, over-the-counter reading glasses. Check with your eye doctor to determine whether nonprescription presbyopia glasses are appropriate for you. 

    Over-the-counter glasses are sometimes insufficient, or you may need prescription corrective lenses for farsightedness, nearsightedness, or astigmatism. In such cases, you will require prescription lenses to correct presbyopia. 

    The eye doctor can thus suggest the following options; 

    • Prescription reading glasses: If you don't have any additional vision issues, then reading glasses and prescription lenses could be a good option. Whenever you are not reading, you'll have to take them off. 
    • Bifocals: A noticeable horizontal line distinguishes the distance prescription (over the line) from your reading prescription (under the line) on these lenses.
    • Trifocals: This consists of three lenses, including one for close-up work; intermediate vision and distance vision. The lenses of trifocals also have two noticeable horizontal lines. 
    • Office progressives: These lenses have close-work and computer-distance adjustments. They are typically recommended for use on a computer and reading. However, one needs to remove them while driving or moving around. 
    • Progressive multifocal: There are no clear horizontal lines on this sort of lens. However, it does have several powers for distant, intermediate distance, and close-up repairs. The concentrating strength of different parts of the lens varies. 

    Contact lenses:

    Contact lenses

    Individuals who do not wish to wear eyeglasses frequently can consider presbyopia contacts to correct related vision impairments. If you have specific disorders involving your tear ducts, eyelids, or the eyes surfaces, like dry eye, this choice might not be suitable for you. 

    There are several types of lenses to choose from; 

    • Bifocal contact lenses: A real bifocal lens assist in focusing on only two focal points, typically near and far. They are available in both soft and hard textiles (gas permeable).
    • Monovision contact lenses: One of the eyes wears a lens that helps view objects at a distance, whereas the other wears a lens that assists in near vision with monovision lenses set. Your brain may take about two weeks to acclimate to this new way of viewing. 
    • Modified monovision: This technique involves wearing a multifocal or bifocal contact lens in a single eye and a distance contact lens in the other (normally the dominant eye). The two eyes are used for distance, while one eye is used for reading. 

    Refractive surgery:

    The form of the cornea is altered with refractive surgery. This procedure is useful in improving near vision in the non-dominant eye if you have presbyopia. It's the same as if you were using monovision contact lenses. Close-up work may require the using eyeglasses even after a surgical procedure. 

    Because this surgery is irreversible, speak with your eye doctor concerning the probable adverse effects. Before committing to surgery, you may want to consider monovision contact lenses for some time. 

    Types of refractive surgical procedures are; 

    • Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)
    • Conductive keratoplasty 
    • Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK)
    • Photorefractive keratectomy 

    Lens placement:

    Some individuals are better candidates for refractive lens exchange. This is a procedure that extracts the natural lens like cataract surgery. All types of vision repair, such as presbyopia, farsightedness, nearsightedness, and astigmatism, can be done based on the kind of implant utilized. 

    Corneal inlays

    Corneal inlays are a new yet less prevalent surgical technique for treating presbyopia. Your ophthalmologist places a very tiny plastic ring in the cornea to let you see both far and close objects. It efficiently eliminates blur by generating a pinhole camera effect (same as squinting your eyes to view well again). In most cases, the inlay is only placed in a single eye. 


    Complications of Presbyopia 

    Your eyesight will deteriorate steadily if your presbyopia is untreated or uncorrected. Over time, it will have a greater impact on your way of living. If you don't receive treatment, you can end up with major vision impairment. 

    At work and in daily activities, you'll have trouble maintaining your typical activity levels and productivity. You are in danger of headaches and eye-straining if things like reading smaller print get complicated and aren't addressed.



    Presbyopia mostly develops at the age of 40, even if you have never experienced any vision difficulty before. When reading or staring at your phone, your eyesight may become fuzzy. As a result, concentrating between distances tends to be more complicated.

    Luckily, there are several vision correction solutions available. Once you find the one that works best for you, you will be able to concentrate on everything in exquisite detail again. This is whether it's reading a book or looking at a computer.