Last updated date: 03-Mar-2023

    Originally Written in English




    The field of prosthodontics is concerned with the repair, restoration, and replacement of lost or damaged teeth. Prosthodontists are dental specialists who have been trained to create proper tooth substitutes. This is to improve the oral function, general appearance, comfort, and dental health of people who are lost teeth. To understand the dynamics of the patient's smile, they mostly employ bridges, dentures, or crowns.

    Furthermore, prosthodontists are in responsibility of post-oral cancer reconstruction, traumatic mouth injuries, jaw joint disorders, and sleeping or snoring disorders.


    What is Prosthetics?

    Prosthetics Definition

    Prosthodontics is the branch of dentistry involved with the design, fabrication, and fitting of artificial tooth and mouth replacements. It is a branch of dentistry that focuses on the esthetics and function of the human dentition.

    The science of creating natural-looking teeth within the smile is known as prosthetics and prosthodontics, and it include veneers, crowns, bridges, dentures, and implant-retained restorations. Some of these operations are permanent in your mouth, while others are removable. Before recommending a procedure, dentist will consider factors such as the number of missing teeth, the condition of your existing teeth, and the thickness of your jawbone to determine whether a removable prosthesis or fixed prosthodontics is better suited to this specific dental situation.

    Prosthetic dentistry operations are necessary when hard tooth tissues are lost due to damage caused by dental caries, excessive hermetic seals, or tooth wear. Prosthetic dentistry is also indicated following endodontic dental therapy since tooth vitality decrease increases the likelihood of tooth fractures. A whole tooth crown can be reconstructed in the case of tooth loss by connecting the prosthesis to a dental implant. 


    Prosthetics Branches

    The main branches of Prosthetics include:

    Fixed prosthodontics

    fixed prosthodontics

    Fixed prosthodontics are dental prostheses cemented to the teeth that include crown, bridge and veneer.

    • Crown


    A crown is a dental restoration that completely covers or "caps" a broken tooth. A crown can be used to enhance the look, shape, or alignment of a damaged tooth in addition to reinforcing it. A crown can also be used to produce a tooth-like form and structure for function on top of an implant.

    Crowns made of porcelain or ceramic can be customized to match the color of your natural teeth. Gold and metal alloys, acrylic, and ceramic are among the other materials. These metals are more durable than porcelain and may be suggested for posterior teeth. Because it is both strong and attractive, porcelain linked to a metal shell is frequently used.

    A crown recommends to:

    • Replace a large filling when there isn't enough tooth remaining
    • Protect a weak tooth from fracturing
    • Restore a fractured tooth
    • Attach a bridge
    • Cover a dental implant
    • Cover a discolored or poorly shaped tooth
    • Cover a tooth that has had root canal treatment


    • Bridge


    A Bridge may be recommended if you're missing one or more teeth Missing teeth provide gaps that eventually lead the remaining teeth to rotate or move into the empty areas, resulting in a poor bite. Gum disease and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) problems can arise from the imbalance induced by missing teeth. 

    Bridges are typically used to replace a lost tooth or teeth, fill the gap left by missing teeth and attached to the natural teeth or implants that surround the gap. These teeth, known as abutments, function as bridge anchoring. A pontic, or substitute tooth, is affixed to the crowns that cover the abutments.

    While crowns and bridges might last a lifetime, they can become loose or fall out over time. The most essential thing you can do to extend the life of your crown or bridge is to maintain proper oral hygiene. A bridge can become unstable if the teeth or bone that hold it in place are destroyed by dental disease. Brushing with fluoride toothpaste twice a day and flossing regularly will keep gums and teeth healthy. Visit dentist and hygienist on a regular basis for checkups and expert cleanings.


    A veneer is a material layer made from thin ceramic wafers, commonly known as microprostheses. They are affixed to the teeth's surface. This operation is similar to an aesthetic filling, except that instead of a filing, the tooth surface is covered with ceramic. Veneers are used to hide old, discolored filings, brown or yellow teeth, unsightly forms, and gaps between teeth to provide a more appealing appearance. Veneers are durable, shiny, and do not alter color.


    Removable Prosthodontics

    Removable Prosthodontics

    Removable prosthodontics are dental prostheses removable from the mouth by the patient, which include complete or partial dentures.

    Dentures are removable tooth prostheses that may be removed and reinserted into the mouth. While dentures require some adjustment and will never feel exactly like one's natural teeth, today's dentures are more natural looking and pleasant than ever.

    Dentures are classified into two types: complete and partial. The dentist will assist you in determining the appropriate type of denture for you based on whether part or all of your teeth will be replaced and the expense involved.

    Replacing missing teeth will help you look and smile better. Without denture support, face muscles droop, making a person appear older. Dentures can make it easier to eat and speech.

    One form of device that a dentist may suggest is a partial denture. The fake teeth in this type of dental appliance are supported by a metal framework. Like a retainer, the metal framework is attached to the natural teeth on each side of the fake teeth. can simply remove the item at home, allowing to take it out at night and completely clean it, A flesh-colored acrylic base fits over your gums with complete dentures. The top denture's base covers the palate (the roof of your mouth), while the lower denture's base is curved like a horseshoe to fit your tongue. Dentures are created to custom in a dental laboratory using impressions of the mouth.

    A conventional complete denture is fitted in the mouth. After any residual teeth have been extracted and the tissues have healed, Healing might take several months.

    After the remaining teeth are extracted, an immediate complete denture is placed. (During a previous visit, the dentist takes measurements and creates models of your jaw.) While instant dentures have the advantage of never needing to go without teeth, they must be relined several months after they are placed. The reason for this is that when the bone supporting the teeth heals, it reshapes, causing the denture to become loose.

    A partial denture is supported by a metal framework that is attached to the natural teeth. Crowns are often inserted on some of your natural teeth to function as denture anchors. Bridges can be replaced with removable partial dentures.

    For the first several weeks or months, new dentures may seem uncomfortable or unpleasant. Eating and speaking with dentures may require some practice. Dentures might feel heavy or loose as the muscles of the cheeks and tongue learn to hold them in place. Excessive salivation, a sense that the tongue is constricted, and slight discomfort or pain are also common.

    Dentures will need to be relined, rebuilt, or rebased over time because to normal wear. Rebasing is the process of creating a new foundation while maintaining the current denture teeth. Also, as we get older, our mouths alter. Dentures become looser as a result of these changes, making chewing harder and hurting your gums. Visit the dentist at least once a year for a checkup.


    Maxillofacial Prosthetics

    Maxillofacial Prosthetics

    "Maxillofacial Prosthodontics" or maxillofacial prosthetics is a branch of dentistry that treats congenital and acquired abnormalities of the head and neck areas (such as traumatic traumas and malignancies). It entails the rehabilitation, management, replacement, and restoration of maxillofacial abnormalities or impairments lost or missing structures and functions. The goals of maxillofacial prostheses include restoring esthetics or aesthetic look, preserving maxillofacial functions, and providing psychological treatment.

    Maxillofacial prosthetics incorporates several fields, including prosthetic dentistry (prosthodontics), head and neck oncology, plastic surgery, and others. Prostheses are constructed from a variety of materials to replace broken teeth, missing bone, or soft tissue.


     Maxillofacial prosthesis may be beneficial in the following situations:

    • Congenital abnormalities such as birth defects, anotia (external baby’s ear is missing completely at birth), cleft lip and cleft palate. 
    • Lost or damaged maxillofacial organs after traumatic injuries.
    • Lost or damaged maxillofacial organs caused by cancers.


    There are two types of maxillofacial prosthesis depending on prosthetic positioning:

    • Intraoral prosthesis: include prosthetic soft and hard palates, assistive speech devices, oral exercisers, and swallowing aids.
    • Extraoral prostheses: include Orbital implants, as well as ocular, nose, ear, and skull prosthesis


    There some benefits of Maxillofacial Prosthetic which include: 

    • Restoring organ structure and functions
    • Cosmetic advantages
    • Regaining self-confidence
    • Improvement of patient’s quality of life

    Following prosthetic surgery, maintaining appropriate hygienic care of prostheses and following the dentist's recommendations are critical in order to extend the lifespan of the prosthesis. Prosthetic dislocation is possible on occasion; hence, regular follow-up is strongly encouraged.


    Implant prosthodontics

    Implant prosthodontics

    A Dental implant is an artificial tooth root. Its aim is to anchor artificial teeth to the jawbone. Dental implants are like screws, and the jawbone is like a piece of wood. In this scenario, a screw would be turned half its length into a piece of wood, and an artificial tooth would be glued to the portion of the screw that protrudes above the wood.

    The screw would be tightly fixed to the wood, and the tooth would be securely fastened to the screw. A single dental implant can replace a single missing tooth. Four to eight dental implants may be placed in a jaw that is missing all of the teeth.

    Dental implants must be placed in adequate bone that is infection-free. Surgical procedures are sometimes necessary to clean up an existing infection or to construct more bone for implantation techniques such as bone ridge augmentation or nasal sinus elevation. The procedure for placing dental implants is identical to that of tooth extraction.


    When an implantology therapy is performed, many types of prosthesis are used which include:

    1. A single implant-based crown: is the greatest option for replacing a single dental element. It is the most basic operation in the field of implantology. The crown, or the component that takes the shape of a tooth, will be attached to the implant by a screw.
    2. Implant-supported bridge: this is a fixed bridge technique. To offer just one example, two implants can replace three teeth. When a specialist uses this procedure to rehabilitate the entire mouth, it is referred to as implant-supported comprehensive rehabilitation.
    3. Implant retained overdenture: Using 2-4 implants, a removable dental prosthesis gets increased retention, making the prosthesis more fixed even if it can be removed.
    4. Immediate loading: In some situations, and always after a good study, a provisional fixed prosthesis based on the implants may be done the same day they are installed. This approach allows patients to be toothless during the implant integration phase and eliminates the need for an interim detachable prosthesis. However, this therapy is not appropriate for many patients.


    Prosthetics Dentistry Advantages

    Dental prostheses can be used to address defects such as missing or lost teeth. Replacements, implants, cosmetic dentistry, and repairs are among procedures used to treat oral tissue disorders. The rising prevalence of periodontal disorders across all age groups is driving the huge need for dental prosthesis.

    Besides from oral diseases, greater disposable income, the understanding that dental prosthetics is the best therapy for tooth replacements and restorations, and the expansion of medical tourism are all reasons why the market is on the rise.

    The Top 5 Advantages of Dental Prosthetics include:

    1. Reduced Bone Loss: Oral bone loss occurs as a result of tooth loss. This is very typical when the tooth is not replaced, and much more so when numerous teeth are removed. Dentures, whether partial or full, do not help to reduce bone loss because, when compared to natural teeth, they exert relatively little chewing pressure. Dental prostheses, as opposed to dentures, provide the jawbone with a substitute tooth that applies pressure similar to real teeth. As a consequence, bone loss is significantly reduced.
    2. Effective oral rehabilitation and maintenance solution: There are few restorative dental procedures that are as efficient and successful as prosthetic dentistry. Because this treatment employs modern technologies such as electron microscopy, 3D imaging, and nanotechnology-based implants, patients receive the best outcomes in the shortest amount of time. Thus, in addition to superior therapy, patients now have a low-maintenance solution for all of their mouth issues, which previous oral therapies do not give.
    3. Better quality of life for patients: Dental prosthesis, unlike other dental procedures, genuinely improve the quality of life of dental patients by enhancing their overall oral health. Patients, for example, feel more secure and confident because dental prosthetics generate teeth that are very close to natural teeth. Furthermore, unlike dentures, patients do not have to worry with food entrapment and hence do not have to spend as much time preserving their teeth. For these reasons, people all around the world are choosing for dental prosthesis, ignoring the high financial costs.
    4. Improved aesthetic: When permanent teeth are missing, cheeks will tend to collapse inward as a result of jawbone material in the area. The more apparent this gets, the more rapid facial aging will suffer, making patient appear substantially older than his actual age. Prostheses are permanent solutions that prevent face collapse caused by lost teeth and bone mass loss.
    5. Provides support to partial dentures: Some of the negative effects of partial dentures include gum looseness, discomfort in the oral cavity, and the development of periodontal disease or dental caries. Due to their rigorous treatment and care procedure, dental prostheses provide the necessary level of support for partial dentures. As a result, the patient does not have to experience discomfort in the oral cavity, perhaps acquire oral illnesses, or experience the normal gum looseness. Because no other dental therapy offers the essential support for partial dentures, an increasing number of dental surgeons are choosing this treatment method.



    Prosthodontic treatment does not consist of a single treatment over the course of the patient's life. It is the continuation of a variety of restorative and prosthodontic dental treatments such as crown, bridge, implant and denture which differ according to each differ case. The dynamic treatment strategy begins with the least amount of harm to the existing teeth yet offers patients with permanent tooth replacement restorations.