Urogenital Cancer

    Last updated date: 16-May-2023

    Originally Written in English

    Urogenital Cancer

    Urogenital Cancer

    What is a urogenital tumor? Given that many individuals have never heard the term urogenital, this is a frequently asked question. So, let's break it down and check each word separately. First, the urogenital system refers to the group of organ systems involved in urination. The kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and adrenal glands are among these organs. (For men, the penis, testicles, and prostate are reproductive organs that are also a component of the urogenital tract.) Second, cancer is a disorder that starts when a cell goes through a change that makes it grow out of control. The malignant cells may infiltrate nearby tissues and even migrate to different regions of the body. Even though there are several malignancies, urogenital cancers are those that develop in one of the urogenital organs.

     

    What is Urogenital Cancer

    Urogenital Cancer

    You are not alone if you have a specific type of urogenital cancer. Each year, hundreds of thousands of Americans find that they have cancer of the reproductive or urinary tract. The urinary system and reproductive organs are among the portions of the genitourinary tract that are affected by urogenital cancer. You can receive treatment for all forms of urogenital cancer from skilled doctors who are aware of your concerns. And doctors will do every effort to treat your cancer while maintaining your quality of life.

     

    Urogenital Cancer Types

    Urogenital Cancer Types

    Adrenocortical Cancer

    a rare kind of cancer that develops in the tissue around the adrenal gland (a small gland on top of each kidney that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline to control heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions). also known as cancer of the adrenal cortex and adrenocortical carcinoma.

     

    Bladder Cancer

    bladder cancer that develops in the tissues (the organ that stores urine). Transitional cell carcinomas make up the majority of bladder malignancies (cancer that starts in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). Squamous cell carcinoma (which starts in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that starts in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids) are two more varieties. Chronic irritation and inflammation in the inner lining of the bladder lead to the development of the cells that make up squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

     

    Kidney Cancer

    Renal cancer develops in the tissues of the kidneys. Renal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent type of kidney cancer in adults. It develops in the lining of the tiny kidney tubes that filter blood and eliminate waste. Kidney cancer that develops in the kidney's center, where urine congregates, is known as transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis. Kidney cancer of the Wilms tumor subtype typically affects children under the age of five.

     

    Penile Cancer

    uncommon penis (an external male reproductive organ) cancer that develops. Squamous cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the penis) make up the majority of penile malignancies.

     

    Prostate Cancer

    Prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system located below the bladder and in front of the rectum) cancer that develops in prostate tissues. Prostate cancer typically affects older men and depending on the patient's age and cancer's features, treatment may not be necessary.

     

    Renal Cell Cancer

    the most typical kidney cancer subtype. It starts in the renal tubule lining of the kidney. The renal tubules create urine while filtering the blood. also known as renal cell adenocarcinoma, hypernephroma, and renal cell carcinoma.

     

    Renal Pelvis Cancer

    The region in the middle of the kidney is known as the renal pelvis. Here, urine collects and is directed into the ureter, which joins the kidney and bladder. The renal pelvis and ureter are lined with transitional cells. Transitional cells are capable of stretching and changing shape without breaking. Your renal pelvis, ureter or both may be where cancer in the transitional cells first appears. It is uncommon for cancer to begin in the renal pelvis or ureter; just 5% of kidney and upper urinary tract tumors do so.

     

    Testicular Cancer

    one or both testicles develop testicular cancer. Men in their 20s or 30s are most likely to get testicular cancer. Testicular germ cell tumors, which comprise the majority of testicular malignancies, develop in germ cells (the cells that produce sperm).

     

    Urethral Cancer

    a rare kind of cancer that develops in urethral tissue (the tube through which urine exits the bladder and leaves the body). Adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma (cancer that starts in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids) are three different types of urethral cancer. Transitional cell carcinoma starts in cells that can stretch and alter shape without rupturing.

     

    Urogenital Cancer Causes

    Urogenital Cancer Causes

    Although the exact origin of urogenital cancer is unknown, some risk factors could raise your risk of developing the disease. These consist of:

    • Smoking. Smokers are more likely to develop urogenital cancer. Additionally, the risk increases the longer a person smokes.
    • Obesity. Urogenital cancer is at risk due to obesity. In general, a person's risk increases with their weight.
    • High blood pressure. Often known as hypertension, has been associated with an increased risk of urogenital cancer.
    • Family history. People may be more likely to have cancer themselves if they have relatives who had urogenital cancer.
    • Radiation therapy. A modest increase in the incidence of urogenital cancer may exist in women who have undergone radiation therapy for cancer of the reproductive system.
    • Gene changes (mutations). The instructions for a cell's functioning are found in genes. Urogenital cancer risk can rise as a result of changes in specific genes.
    • Continuous dialysis therapy. Your blood is cleaned during dialysis by being run through a specialized machine. When a person's kidneys aren't working properly, dialysis is utilized.
    • Complex tuberous sclerosis. The condition known as tuberous sclerosis results in seizures, intellectual impairments, the growth of tumors in numerous organs, and tumor-related convulsions.
    • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Kidney cancer is more likely to affect those who have this genetic condition. This condition results in blood vessel non-cancerous tumors, usually in the brain and eyes.

     

    Urogenital Cancer Symptoms

    Urogenital Cancer Symptoms

     

    Kidney Cancer Symptoms

    Although the symptoms of kidney cancer might vary considerably from person to person, the most common symptom is none at all. Weight loss, exhaustion, a lump or pain in your side or lower back, swelling in your legs and ankles, and a fever that lasts for a few weeks with no apparent cause are further signs of kidney cancer. It's crucial to remember that these symptoms are not always indicative of a cancer diagnosis and can represent a variety of medical conditions. The best course of action is still to consult your doctor if you have any of the aforementioned symptoms.

     

    Bladder Cancer Symptoms

    One of the early signs of bladder cancer that many patients experience is hematuria, or blood in the urine. You can also have frequent urges to urinate, pain while urinating (dysuria), and changes in your bladder patterns. A correct medical diagnosis from a specialist is essential because these symptoms can also indicate other medical disorders in addition to bladder cancer. Immediately consult your doctor if you develop any of the aforementioned symptoms.

     

    Testicular Cancer Symptoms

    A painless lump in one of the testicles is one of the more frequently reported signs of testicular cancer, though not everyone experiences the same symptoms. You might also experience pain in certain areas (including the testicles, scrotum, lower belly, and groin), a change in how your testicles feel or texture, fluid buildup in the scrotum, or a feeling of heaviness. Additionally, you can grow breasts or lose desire in intercourse. Additionally, if you are young, the early onset of body and facial hair may be a symptom of testicular cancer. Of course, a cancer diagnosis is not always made as a result of these symptoms. However, if you have these symptoms, see a doctor right away so they can rule out any other medical issues.

     

    Penile Cancer Symptoms

    Any symptoms or signs of penile cancer should be recognized, including:

    • Bleeding from the penis or from behind the foreskin, a swelling or sore on the penis that doesn't go away in 4 weeks.
    • Offensive discharge.
    • Difficulty pulling back the foreskin due to thickening of the penis or foreskin skin (phimosis).
    • Change in the penis's or the foreskin's color.
    • Penile rash

    It's crucial to have your doctor check these symptoms as soon as you notice them if you experience them. Although they will rarely be caused by penile cancer, they still need to be checked. Any delay in the diagnosis of penile cancer could lower the likelihood of effective therapy.

     

    Urethral Cancer Symptoms

    Cancer of the urethra can be a silent illness. When the cancer is small, it could not show any signs at all. As the tumor grows, it could result in the following symptoms:

    • Blood in the urine (hematuria).
    • Bleeding or discharge from the urethra.
    • Urge to urinate frequently without passing much urine.
    • Difficulties urinating.
    • Urinary discomfort, insufficient flow, or dribbling.
    • Unable to control urination.
    • Groin lymph node enlargement.
    • Lump or growth between your genitalia (perineum) and your anus, or in the penis.

    Many of these might result from other medical issues. But if you experience these symptoms, it is crucial to visit a doctor. If you have cancer, only a medical professional can diagnose you.

     

    Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Early-stage signs of prostate cancer are rare, although they could later result in pain throughout the body (such as your bones, lower pelvic area, lower back, hips, and upper thighs).

     

    Urogenital Cancer Diagnosis

    Urogenital Cancer Diagnosis

     

    Imaging Studies

    One or more tests that produce accurate images of the physical structures in your body may be prescribed by your doctor, such as:

    • Computed tomography (CT scan). To create cross-sections of specific areas, scientists collect several X-rays at various angles.
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This process produces images by using magnetic fields and radio waves. To provide finely detailed pictures of the prostate, doctors employ multiple parametric MRIs.
    • Ultrasound. This produces images of the physical structures in your body using high-frequency sound waves.
    • Positron emission tomography (PET). To examine the health of your body's tissues and organs, doctors utilize radioactive chemicals (tracers). To aid in the early detection of prostate cancer that reappears after treatment with radiation or surgery, the specialist may provide Axumin scans.
    • Bone scanning. A radioactive medication is used in this treatment to detect difficulties with bone metabolism, which can be a sign of prostate issues.

     

    Additional Tests 

    The following procedures may also be used to establish or confirm a diagnosis:

    • Cystoscopy (or bladder scope). To view the urinary tract, doctors utilize a thin, flexible tube.
    • Biopsy. To look for signs of cancer, physicians take tissue or fluid from the affected area and study it under a microscope. The fusion biopsy is used by your team to detect prostate cancer.
    • Molecular tissue testing. To identify tumor-specific genes, proteins, and other components that may suggest malignancy, scientists examine DNA in a tissue sample.
    • Disease-specific tests. Depending on the kind of cancer, specialists may carry out additional tests.

     

    Urogenital Cancer Treatment

    Urogenital Cancer Treatment

     

    Medical Treatment

    • Chemotherapy. If urogenital cancer has spread to other parts of the body, chemotherapy may be your main course of treatment. The medication for this treatment might be either orally or intravenously.
    • Hormonal therapy. The most common form of treatment for locally advanced urogenital cancer is hormone therapy. Hormone therapy may be your best option for treatment if you are not a candidate for surgery or radiation.
    • Targeted treatment. With targeted therapy, malignant cells are carefully targeted while surrounding healthy cells are left unharmed. Additionally, it can be used in conjunction with other forms of treatment like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
    • Immunotherapy. Your immune system can be stimulated through immunotherapy to combat cancer cells. It is sometimes referred to as biologic therapy, biotherapy, or biologic response modifier (BRM) therapy.

     

    Radiation Therapy

    Radiation Therapy

    Doctors provide cutting-edge radiation therapy that kills cancer while protecting surrounding organs. With the use of this technology, doctors can treat your cancer more effectively while causing fewer adverse effects.

    • Radiation therapy with an external beam (EBRT). The most popular form of radiation therapy is EBRT. During EBRT, intense radiation is directed directly at malignancies in your body using a specialized X-ray machine.
    • Internal radiation therapy (Brachytherapy). Different procedures that include putting radioactive material into your body are referred to as brachytherapy. It is less frequent than EBRT.
    • Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). A form of radiation therapy called IMRT destroys cancer cells within the body. With IMRT, your medical team may adjust radiation beams to the particular shapes of your tumor.
    • TomoTherapy. In the course of a therapy called tomotherapy, radiation is directed toward your tumor from several different angles. You lay on a table during tomotherapy as a machine spins in a spiral pattern around you while emitting radiation.

     

    Surgical Treatment

    Surgical Treatment

    Another option for treating urogenital cancer is surgery, which may involve using minimally invasive methods and cutting-edge robotic technology. In comparison to open surgery or conventional laparoscopy, patients who undergo this kind of robotic surgery can anticipate less discomfort and quicker recovery times.

    • Cryosurgery. Cryosurgery, often known as cryotherapy or cryoablation, is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves freezing the affected gland to kill cancer cells. When a patient's cancer has come back, it may be utilized instead of removing the diseased gland surgically.
    • Radiofrequency Ablation. Another minimally invasive therapy that uses heat to prevent pain signals from traveling from nerve endings to the brain is radiofrequency ablation. Some patients may be able to skip surgery altogether and resume their regular activities more quickly with this method of care than with another.

     

    Conclusion

    Urogenital tumors are common diseases with high morbidity and mortality that require multidisciplinary medical and surgical care. Every patient with chronic signs or symptoms suggestive of these tumors has to see a urologist for further evaluation.