Eye diseases

    Last updated date: 07-Mar-2023

    Originally Written in English

    Eye diseases

    Eye disease


    There are several eye illnesses and eye disorders. Some are incurable, while others are treatable. You may help your own eye health by living a healthy lifestyle and seeing your eye doctor on a regular basis and whenever your vision changes.

    What are eye diseases?

    eye diseases

    The good news is that it is never too late to start caring for your eyes. Regular eye health consultations and screenings can help with early detection. This is critical for repairing or reducing the progression of most eye problems. If your eyesight problem persists or worsens for more than a few days, consult an eye care expert. Keeping your eyes healthy may have a big impact on your entire health and well-being. Keeping track of your ocular health and tracking any changes with comprehensive eye exams can significantly lower your risk of vision loss. More than 3.4 million Americans aged 40 and over have "legal blindness" (visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better-seeing eye or visual field of 20 degrees or less) or corrected vision (visual acuity of 20/40 or less). Almost 7% of children under the age of 18 in the United States have been diagnosed with an eye illness or condition. Almost 3% of youngsters under the age of 18 are blind or have damaged eyesight. Vision loss is one of the top ten causes of impairment in individuals over the age of 18 in the United States, and it is also one of the most prevalent debilitating disorders in children.

    Over 21 million Americans suffer from visual impairment. Many eye disorders, such as slight myopia, are quite harmless (nearsightedness). 

    The four most frequent eye disorders that cause vision loss or blindness are:

    However, there are several eye illnesses and problems.


    What are the symptoms of eye diseases?

    symptoms of eye diseases

    Monitoring your eye health can help ensure that your eyes are appropriately cared for. If your optometrist detects indicators of an eye condition, he or she can devise a treatment plan to preserve and protect your eyesight.

    • Red eyes

    Redness in the eyes can be caused by a variety of illnesses and traumas, resulting in irritation, swelling, and vision loss. Typically, the little blood vessels in the eyes become inflamed, causing the whites of the eyes to appear pink or red.

    • Blindness at night

    You may have a night vision impairment if you have difficulty seeing when it becomes dark outside. Normally, your eyes can quickly adjust between well-lit and gloomy environments, but various eye issues might make this harder.

    A headache is characterized by discomfort in the head, neck, and face. A headache is usually the result of emotional or physical strain, such as stress or high blood pressure.

    • Light sensitivity

    Light sensitivity, often known as photophobia, is a condition that makes bright light unpleasant. Squinting in a brilliantly light environment or when outside is a symptom of mild photophobia. When your eyes are exposed to any type of light, more severe instances may cause substantial pain.

    • Floaters 

    Floaters are objects that appear in your range of vision as specks, spots, lines, or webs. They appear to be in front of your eye, but they are actually floating inside the vitreous. 

    The shadows created on the retina by microscopic groupings of cells are what you see.

    • Flashes

    Flashes might appear in your range of view as flashing lights or lightning streaks. After being knocked in the head, some patients describe seeing flashes comparable to "seeing stars."

    • Eyes that are dry 

    Dry eyes can make them feel gritty, itchy, and inflamed. Dry eye is a chronic problem caused by your eyes not generating enough excellent-quality tears to keep your eyes moisturized.

    • Extreme tearing

    If your eyes are constantly watering and generating too many tears, you might be suffering from a number of problems. Tears are produced by irritated eyes in an attempt to lubricate and soothe the eyes.

    • Vision blurring or distortion 

    Vision blurring or distortion is a typical sign of a number of eye disorders. If you experience abrupt, severe changes in your eyesight, you should see your optometrist right once.

    • Swelling

    Trauma to the head, neck, or face can cause swelling on or around the eye. The tissues in the eye or eyelids might become irritated and inflamed, giving the appearance of a swollen, discolored eye.


    What are some common eye diseases?

    Many conditions can affect your eye. Which include:

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) 

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) 

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye illness that causes central vision to become blurry. It happens as the macula, the portion of the eye that regulates crisp, straight-ahead vision, deteriorates with age. The macula is a component of the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). AMD is a prevalent disorder that is a significant cause of visual loss in elderly people. Although AMD cannot cause total blindness, it can make it difficult to see faces, read, drive, or conduct close-up work such as cooking or housework.

    AMD is classified into two types: dry and moist.


    Dry AMD

    The majority of AMD patients have dry AMD (also called atrophic AMD). This is the process by which the macula thins with age. Dry AMD manifests itself in three stages: early, moderate, and late. It normally takes several years to complete. There is no cure for late dry AMD, but you may make the most of your remaining eyesight.

    You can also safeguard your other eye if you have late dry AMD in only one eye.


    Wet AMD

    Wet AMD (also known as advanced neovascular AMD) is a less prevalent kind of late AMD that causes more rapid vision loss. Wet AMD can develop at any stage of dry AMD, although it is always late. It occurs when aberrant blood vessels develop at the rear of the eye, causing damage to the macula. The good news is that there are therapy options for wet AMD.


    Treatment for AMD

    Treatment for AMD is determined on the stage and type. Because there is currently no therapy for early AMD, your eye doctor will most likely simply monitor how your eyes are doing through frequent eye exams. Eating well, exercising regularly, and quitting smoking can all help.

    If you have intermediate AMD in one or both eyes, dietary supplements (vitamins and minerals) may help prevent it from progressing to late AMD. If you have late AMD in only one eye, these supplements may help reduce the progression of AMD in the other eye.

    If you have wet AMD, you may be able to avoid additional vision loss with the following treatments:

    • Anti-VEGF medicines are medications that your doctor injects into your eye.
    • Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a technique that combines injections and laser treatment

    There is presently no therapy for late dry AMD, although researchers are working hard to find one. You can also obtain help coping with AMD-related visual loss.  




    Amblyopia (also known as lazy eye) is a kind of impaired eyesight that normally affects just one eye but, in rare cases, both eyes. It occurs when there is a breakdown in the way the brain and the eye operate together, and the brain is unable to perceive sight from one eye. Over time, the brain becomes increasingly reliant on the other, stronger eye, while vision in the weaker eye deteriorates. Because the stronger eye performs better, it is referred to as "lazy eye." People with amblyopia, on the other hand, are not sluggish, and they have no control over how their eyes operate.

    Symptoms of amblyopia 

    Amblyopia symptoms might be difficult to detect. Children with amblyopia may have impaired depth perception, which means they have difficulty determining how close or far something is. Parents may also notice indicators that their kid is having difficulty seeing clearly, such as:

    • Squinting
    • 1 eye closed
    • They are tilting their heads.

    Many parents are unaware that their kid has amblyopia until a doctor identifies it during an eye exam. That is why, between the ages of 3 and 5, all children should get a vision screening. 

    Treatment of amblyopia 

    The doctor may first address any vision problems that are causing amblyopia. For example, physicians may prescribe glasses or contacts (for nearsighted or farsighted children) or surgery (for kids with cataract). 

    The following stage is to retrain the brain to utilize the weaker eye. The more the brain utilizes it, the more powerful it becomes. Treatment options include:

    • On the stronger eye, an eye patch is worn. When this eye is covered with a stick-on eye patch (akin to a Band-Aid), the brain is forced to utilize the weaker eye to see. Some children just need to wear the patch for two hours every day, while others may need to wear it all day.
    • Using specific eye drops to treat the stronger eye. A once-daily dose of atropine can temporarily obscure near vision, forcing the brain to utilize the opposite eye. This medication works as well as an eye patch for some children, and some parents find it simpler to apply (for example, because young children may try to pull off eye patches)




    Astigmatism is a common eye condition that causes your vision to be fuzzy or distorted. It occurs when the shape of your cornea (the transparent front layer of your eye) or lens (an inner element of your eye that helps the eye focus) differs from normal.

    An eye exam is the only method to determine if you have astigmatism. You can improve your vision using glasses or contact lenses, and some people can have surgery to correct their astigmatism.

    Symptoms of astigmatism 

    Astigmatism's most prevalent symptoms are:

    • Hazy vision
    • Requiring squinting to see clearly
    • Headaches
    • Trouble seeing at night due to eye strain

    You may not notice any symptoms if you have minor astigmatism. That is why it is critical to get frequent eye checkups - Your eye doctor can assist you in ensuring that you are seeing as clearly as possible. This is especially true for youngsters, who may be less aware that their eyesight is abnormal.

    Treatment of astigmatism

    Astigmatism is most commonly treated with eyeglasses or contact lenses. Your eye specialist will prescribe the best glasses for you to see well. Astigmatism can also be treated surgically. The operation alters the curvature of your cornea so that it can properly focus light. You may not require treatment if your astigmatism is modest. Your eye doctor can advise you on whether you need treatment and what form of treatment is best for you.  




    A cataract is a clouded spot in your eye's lens. Cataracts are quite frequent as people age. In fact, more than half of all Americans aged 80 and up have cataracts or have had cataract surgery. You may not realize you have a cataract at first. Cataracts, on the other hand, might cause your eyesight to become blurry, cloudy, or less colored over time. You may have difficulty reading or performing other daily tasks. The good news is that cataracts can be removed surgically. Cataract surgery is painless and effective in correcting visual difficulties caused by cataracts.

    Symptoms of cataracts 

    When cataracts are moderate, you may not notice any symptoms initially. However, when cataracts progress, they might alter your eyesight. You may note, for example, that:

    • You have foggy or fuzzy vision.
    • The colors appear faded.
    • You can't see clearly at night because the lights, sunshine, or headlights are too bright.
    • A halo appears around the lights.
    • You notice two things (this sometimes goes away as the cataract gets bigger)
    • You must frequently adjust the prescription for your glasses.

    These symptoms might also be indicative of other eye issues. If you have any of these symptoms, see your eye doctor. Cataracts can cause eyesight loss over time.

    Treatment of cataract

    Surgery is the only way to remove a cataract, although you may not need it immediately.

    • Treatment at home. You may be able to make simple modifications to manage your cataracts early on. You can accomplish the following:
        • Increase the brightness of your lights at home or at work.
        • Wear anti-reflective sunglasses.
        • Use magnifying glasses for reading and other tasks.
    • New spectacles or contacts. Early on, a fresh prescription for glasses or contact lenses can help you see better with cataracts.
    • Surgery. If your cataracts begin to interfere with daily activities such as reading, driving, or watching TV, your doctor may recommend surgery. The clouded lens is removed and replaced with a new, artificial lens during cataract surgery (also called an intraocular lens, or IOL). This operation is quite safe, and 9 out of 10 patients who have it benefit from improved vision.




    Glaucoma is a category of eye illnesses that can cause vision loss and blindness by injuring the optic nerve in the back of the eye. The symptoms may appear gradually and you may not notice them. A full dilated eye exam is the only method to determine if you have glaucoma. Although there is no cure for glaucoma, early treatment can typically arrest the damage and save your eyesight.

    Symptoms of glaucoma

    Glaucoma typically has no symptoms at first. That is why half of patients with glaucoma are unaware of their condition. You may gradually lose eyesight over time, generally beginning with your side (peripheral) vision — particularly the area of your vision closest to your nose. Because it develops so slowly, many people are first unaware that their eyesight is altering. However, as the condition progresses, you may realize that you can no longer see things off to the side. Glaucoma, if left untreated, can lead to blindness.

    Treatment of glaucoma

    Glaucoma is treated with a variety of methods, including medications (typically eye drops), laser therapy, and surgery. If you have glaucoma, it is critical to begin treatment as soon as possible. Treatment will not restore your vision, but it will keep it from deteriorating.

    • Medicines. The most frequent therapy is prescription eye drops. They reduce intraocular pressure and protect the optic nerve.
    • Laser therapy. Doctors can use lasers to assist the fluid drain out of your eye to lessen your eye pressure. It is a straightforward treatment that your doctor can do in his or her office.
    • Surgery. If medications and laser therapy do not work, your doctor may recommend surgery. There are various surgical options available to assist the fluid drain from your eye.


    Diabetes-related retinopathy

    Diabetes-related retinopathy

    Diabetes-related retinopathy is a frequent diabetic consequence. It is one of the primary causes of adult blindness in the United States. Diabetes-related retinopathy is a condition in which blood vessels in the retina continue to be damaged as a result of uncontrolled high sugar (glucose) levels in your blood for an extended period of time. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in your eye that allows you to see clearly.

    Symptoms of diabetes-related retinopathy

     Until the illness is severe, most persons with diabetes-related retinopathy do not notice any changes in their vision. Symptoms appear and disappear in others. Among the symptoms are:

    • Vision that is blurred or distorted.
    • New color blindness or perceiving fading colors
    • Night vision is poor.
    • You may see little black patches or streaks in your eyesight.
    • Having difficulty reading or perceiving distant items.

    Injections of a specific type of medicine and surgery to repair or decrease blood vessels in the retina are among the treatments.


    What can I do to keep my eyes in the best possible condition?

    Possible condition

    There are several things you may take to safeguard your vision. Among the suggestions are:

    • Even if you don't notice any changes in your eyesight, see your eye care specialist on a frequent basis.
    • Understand your risk factors for eye illness. Age, a family history of eye illness, your ethnic heritage, or having other health concerns such as high blood pressure or diabetes are some examples.
    • Choose a healthy way of living. Keeping your body as healthy as possible will reduce your chances of developing eye disorders or vision issues.
    • Keep your eyes safe. Even on cloudy days, use sunglasses to protect your eyes from UVA and UVB rays. When participating in sports or working on home or industrial tasks, use appropriate protective eyewear.
    •  Wear and clean your contacts according to the directions. Avoid lengthy periods of computer and phone eye strain. Every 20 minutes, take a minute to rest your eyes and focus on faraway objects. 



    Good vision allows you to engage with the world around you. Some visual disorders are simple to remedy. Some illnesses are incurable. Many eye illnesses, however, can be repaired or the disease process delayed to decrease vision loss if discovered and treated early. If you detect any changes in your vision, contact your doctor immediately. Some eye issues have no early warning symptoms. Your eye doctor can perform the necessary tests and recommend eyeglasses, medicines, or surgery to halt or minimize vision loss and help you see your best.